I - Z

Isaacson, Walter. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Lescaze, Lee. "Sorenson Bows to Opposition, Withdraws as Nominee for CIA." Washington Post, 18 Jan. 1977, A1.

President Carter's initial nominee for DCI withdraws in the face of controversy over his nomination.

Scoville, Herbert. "Is Espionage Necessary for Our Security?" Foreign Affairs 54, no. 2 (Apr. 1976): 482-495.

Lowenthal notes that this dated work "presents the case for technical collection as opposed to the need for human collection."

Stack, Kevin P. "Appreciating President Ford's Legacy to Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 73-79.

"The presidential legacy of Gerald R. Ford has yet to be adequately assessed. But his positive role in defining intelligence community operations and options is certain to assume larger proportions as scholars give additional focus to these aspects of his administration."

Szanton, Peter, and Graham Allison. "Intelligence: Seizing the Opportunity." Foreign Policy 22 (Spring 1976): 183-215.

Taylor, Telford, Roger Hilsman, Frederick A.O. Schwartz, Fr., and Paul C. Warnke. "The Crisis in Intelligence Gathering," Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 12, no. 4 (Fall 1976): 451-487.

Calder: "Panel [d]iscussion of the cures for intelligence excesses or perceived excesses."

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. President Carter and the Role of Intelligence in the Camp David Accords, at:

"This collection consists of more than 250 previously classified documents, totaling over 1,400 pages, including some 150 that are being released for the first time.  These documents cover the period from January 1977 through March 1979 and were produced by the CIA to support the Carter administration’s diplomatic efforts leading up to President Carter’s negotiations with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at Camp David in September 1978. The declassified documents detail diplomatic developments from the Arab peace offensive and President Sadat’s trip to Jerusalem through the regionwide aftermath of Camp David."

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., Edward C. Keefer. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976.

Volume II. Organization and Management of U.S. Foreign Policy, 1969-1972. Ed., David C. Humphrey. Washington, DC: GPO, 2006. [Available at:]

Hanyok, I&NS 23.5 (Oct. 2008), notes that this volume includes a "substantial section .. on the intelligence community in the early years of the Nixon presidency": "The Intelligence Community and the White House," pp. 361-660.

Volume XII. Soviet Union, January 1969-October 1970. Ed., Erin R. Mahan. Washington, DC: GPO, 2006. [Available at:]

This volume contains a number of documents on covert action against the Soviet Union. See

Volume XIV. Soviet Union, October 1971-May 1972. Eds., David C. Geyer, Nina D. Howland, and Kent Sieg. Washington, DC: GPO, 2006. [Available at:]

Volume XXIX. Eastern Europe; Eastern Mediterranean, 1969–1972. Eds., James E. Miller, Douglas E. Selvage, and Laurie Van Hook. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. [Available at:]

From "Preface": "The coverage of this volume is split almost equally between Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean [i.e., Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey].... The second chapter [of the Eastern Europe section] is ... a general one. It deals with U.S. Government policy and the bureaucratic debate about -- and ultimately, the decision on how to fund -- Radio Free Europe ... and Radio Liberty."

Warner, Michael. "Reading the Riot Act: The Schlesinger Report, 1971." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 387-417.

The report completed in March 1971 by a group working under the leadership of OMB Assistant Director James Schlesinger "marked a watershed for the American Intelligence Community (IC), helping the Nixon Administration to conceive and enact reforms that were both consequential in themselves and presaged the findings of later surveys and investigations (and thus more thorough changes in later years)."

Text of the Schlesinger Report ("OMB/NSC Report") and associated materials are available as "A Review of the Intelligence Community," 10 March 1971, Document 229, in Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Vol II, Organization and Management of US Foreign Policy, 1969-1972 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2006), pp. 494-513, and at:

See comments on article by Sir David Omand, "How Many Schlesingers Would It Take to Change a Light-Bulb?" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 418-421; and Glenn Hastedt, "The Schlesinger Report: Its Place in Past, Present and Future Studies of Improving Intelligence Analysis," Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 422-428.

Wilson, Samuel V. [LTGEN/USA] "American Intelligence and the Tricentennial." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 3 (Fall 1976): 1-7.

The DIA Director looks to the future of U.S. intelligence.

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