General Works

D - L

Deutsch, James I. "'I Was a Hollywood Agent': Cinematic Representations of the Office of Strategic Services in 1946." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 85-99.

"In 1946,... three Hollywood feature films were released that dramatized the agency's operations during World War II: O.S.S. (Paramount Pictures[)], 13 Rue Madeleine (Twentieth Century-Fox), and Cloak and Daggers (Warner Bros. Pictures). Although officials in the War Department w[e]re often disturbed by many of technical details that these three films revealed about the military, the intelligence establishment generally benefited from the the largely positive publicity and box-office success that these films received."

Dorwart, Jeffrey M. Eberstadt and Forrestal: A National Security Partnership, 1909-1949. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1991.

Sokolsky, I&NS 10.1: "Eberstadt, though never holding high public office, had a profound impact upon American national security policy through his personal and professional friendship with James Forrestal.... [I]t was from the activities of these two men that the 'concepts and forms laid out in the National Security Act of 1947 derived.'... [And] it was Eberstadt ... who provided most of the ideas making him 'perhaps the single most important organizer of the American national security establishment.'... Dorwart's excellent book shows us how two dedicated men prepared America for leadership in the nuclear age."

See also, Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal (New York: Knopf, 1992).

Friedman, Hal M. "The 'Bear' in the Pacific? US Intelligence Perceptions of Soviet Strategic Power Projection in the Pacific Basin and East Asia, 1945-1947." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 4 (Oct. 1997): 75-101.

U.S. military planners had a broad understanding of the difficulties facing the Soviet Union as it emerged from World War II and generally perceived the USSR as a long-term threat. Nonetheless, U.S. strategic planners tended to follow a "worst-case" scenario in their perceptions of the potential role of the Soviet Union in Asia.

Greene, Harris. "Experience of War: Cloak-and-Dagger in Salzburg." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 9, no. 3 (Spring 1997): 22-23.

The author was operations chief for the U.S. Army's 430th Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) Detachment in Salzburg. He relates a 20 January 1946 incident between the CIC and NKVD over a former Abwehr agent named Richard Kauder.

Grose, Peter. Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Click for reviews.

Hale, William Harlan. "Big Noise in Little Luxembourg." Harper's Magazine, Apr. 1946, 377-384. [Winkler]

Hansen, Peer Henrik.

1. Second to None: US Intelligence Activities in Northern Europe 1943-1946. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2011.

Peake, Studies 55.4 (Dec. 2011) and Intelligencer 19.1 (Winter-Spring 2012), :notes that this work covers both World War II and immediate postwar relations between the Allies and the Danish Intelligence Service. The author's "research in US and Danish archives has produced a unique book on a topic not treated in any depth elsewhere."

2. "When the Americans Came to Europe: U.S. Intelligence in Northern Europe 1943-46." American Intelligence Journal 26, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009): 42-53.

The focus here is on OSS (in competition with the British) activities concerning Denmark during and immediately after World War II. "Mutual interest [between the United States and Denmark] created a close cooperation in 1945-46 that eventually resulted in more formal agreements about joint HUMINT and SIGINT actitivies."

Heuser, Beatrice. "Covert Action within British and American Concepts of Containment, 1948-51." In British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, 1945-51, ed. Richard J. Aldrich, 65-84. London: Routledge, 1992.

Heuser, Beatrice. Western "Containment" Policies in the Cold War: The Yugoslav Case, 1948-53. London: Routledge, 1989.

Aldrich, I&NS 5.3, says that this work gives careful attention to the West's "liberation" strategies with regard to Yugoslavia and Albania, and "sets these operations in the refreshing context of the wider patterns of Western policy.... [T]his study will constitute essential reading ... for those who wish to gain an understanding of the place of covert activities within high-level Western policies in Europe before 1954."

Hogan, Michael J. A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security State, 1945-1954. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hedley, IJI&C 12.3, finds that "Hogan has broken new ground by dissecting and describing the domestic drama through which perceived national security imperatives led the United States from isolationism into the building of a national security state.... [Nevertheless,] intelligence scholars are likely to find it ... somewhat disappointing," as the author "seems to marginalize the role and influence of intelligence in the national security state."

For Buse, I&NS 15.3, this work is simultaneously "good" and "weak." It "provides a thorough account of the clash between traditional political assumptions and the emergence of a national security state in the United States.... Yet, the book is not informative on the civic and global consequences of the new state's role.... Hogan employs a narrow definition of institutional development and looks primarily at consequences for the political system."

Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Unsinger, IJI&C 7.4, describes Driven Patriot as "a well-balanced, easily readable, and informative account.... [T]he authors provide some insight into ... Forrestal's active support of covert operations.... Forrestal was an early player in the covert game unfolding before World War II," particularly in South America. After the war, Forrestal continued to support the use of covert action, including activities concerning the Ukraine, China, and the Italian elections of 1948. This book "is a good analysis of James Forrestal's life and times."

A review by Clay Blair, WPNWE, 4-10 May 1992, focuses on Forrestal's role in the services-unification battle, first, as Navy Secretary and, then, Defense Secretary. The book is judged to be a "very good, very professional job, with only a[n] occasional lapse." For Hyland, FA 71.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1992), this biography is "well-written" and "thoroughly researched and documented." However, the book "is somewhat too episodic, and the chronology occasionally leaves the reader confused." See also, Jeffrey M. Dorwart, Eberstadt and Forrestal: A National Security Partnership, 1909-1949 (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1991).

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