General Works

A - C

Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department. New York: Norton, 1969.

Petersen: "Covers issues of national intelligence organization after World War II."

Alvarez, David. "American Clandestine Intelligence in Early Postwar Europe." Journal of Intelligence History, 4, no. 1 (Summer 2004). []

From abstract: Early postwar OSS/SSU operations "were seriously compromised by insufficient staff, bureaucratic bickering in Washington..., inadequate guidance ... from headquarters, and the need ... to create from little or nothing a clandestine intelligence apparatus. The result was a cautious and rather lackluster approach to intelligence collection.... Only in early 1946, when the Soviet Union emerged as the primary target, did American clandestine intelligence in Europe begin to reacquire the resources, focus and energy necessary to serve the needs of American policy makers."

Anderson, Elizabeth E. "The Security Dilemma and Covert Action: The Truman Years." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 4 (Winter 1998-1999): 403-427.

The author applies the "security dilemma" theory (which essentially postulates an arms race fueled by a threat/buildup/reaction/threat/buildup spiral) from the field of international relations to covert action as a tool of state policy in the Truman admnistration (1945-1953). Although this is perhaps a little too "IRish" for some tastes, the article's application of the security dilemma to actions short of war is interesting and worth some consideration.

Aronsen, Lawrence R. "America's National Security and the Defence of the Northern Frontier, 1945-51." Canadian Review of American Studies 14 (1983): 259-277.

Baldwin, Hanson W.

Series of five articles in the New York Times on U.S. intelligence, 20-25 Jul. 1948. Petersen notes that this series received "considerable" attention at the time.

Best, R. A. "Cooperation with Like-Minded Peoples": British Influences on American Security Policy, 1945-1949. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

Buckow, Anjana. Zwischen Propaganda und Realpolitik: Die USA und der sowjetisch besetzte Teil Deutschlands 1945-1955. USA-Studies 13. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2003.

von Buelow, H-German, H-Net Reviews, Oct. 2004, notes that the author discusses "the activities of RIAS (the famous broadcasting station in the American sector of Berlin) and various other propaganda efforts, particularly those aimed at East Germany's youth." However, Buckow concentrates "exclusively on the perceptions of a small group of American military and diplomatic policy-makers." Her "meticulous research could have paid more attention to the perceptions of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly since this group played a critical function during the Cold War (especially in Berlin), not merely in their role as furnishers of secret information to policy-makers but also as covert actors." (footnote omitted)

Coleman, Joseph. "Papers Tie U.S. to 1950s Japan Coup Plot." Associated Press, 28 Feb. 2007. []

Declassified CIA files released by the National Archives in January 2007 "reveal that Japanese ultranationalists with ties to U.S. military intelligence plotted to overthrow the Japanese government and assassinate the prime minister in 1952.... [T]he documentary evidence ... illustrates the violent potential of the right-wing, anti-communist cabal that had worked under the U.S. occupation authority's 'G-2' intelligence wing in the ... late 1940s and early 50s.... The CIA files ... say the [G-2] operations were riddled with intelligence leaks, hobbled by a lack of competent agents, and deeply compromised by rivalries among the rightists themselves.... The departure of [Maj. Gen. Charles] Willoughby [chief of G-2 in the occupation government] from Japan in 1951 ... deprived the rightists of their leading American patron and paymaster."

Corke, Sarah-Jane. "History, Historians and the Naming of Foreign Policy: A Postmodern Reflection on American Strategic Thinking during the Truman Administration." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 146-163.

The author argues that "by labeling US Cold War policy 'containment,' historians have simplified a complex phenomena to such an extent that there is very little correspondence between the word and the historical reality it purports to describe."

Cutler, Richard. Counterspy: Memoirs of a Counterintelligence Officer in World War II and the Cold War. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 2004.

According to Periscope 26.1 (2004), the author "describes his career with the super-secret X-2 counterintelligence branch" of OSS and "his postwar counterespionage work with its successor, the War Department's Strategic Services Unit (SSU)." Cutler "provides an insightful overview of OSS operations during the war." He also worked in counterespionage in Berlin in the early postwar years.

OSS Society Newsletter (Winter 2004-2005), says that Cutler "offers a rare firsthand account of the secret war against Hitler and the postwar competition with the Soviets for German intelligence assets." Bath, NIPQ 21.2 (Jun. 2005), comments that "[w]e learn little about counterintelligence tradecraft from the stories Cutler tells about agent handling, but a great deal about the attitudes of the conquered Germans and of life in Berlin in the immediate post-war devastation."

For DKR, AFIO WIN 35-04 (27 Sep. 2004), this is a "remarkable account of espionage during the hot war and the beginning of the Cold War." The author "sets out previously unpublished case histories of double agents in Berlin and gives details of recruitment, missions, methods and the fates that followed from success or failure."

West, IJI&C 19.2 (Summer 2006), finds that the author's "value lies in his matter-of-fact descriptions of his agents, and the successes, failures, he experienced." His "version of the famous CICERO case ... is deeply flawed.... But this episode is a rare example in Cutler's narrative of straying from his own first-hand experience."

To Ruffner, Studies 49.3 (2005), this "is an invigorating account"; it "is not only good reading, but also perhaps the only firsthand account of X-2 operations in Berlin at the dawn of the Cold War. The author provides "an excellent introduction to this confusing period. A keen observer during his travels throughout Europe, he provides insights into life during and after the war and how the local population reacted to the American presence."

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