Alexander, Yonah, and Michael S. Swetnam, eds. Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational, 2001.

Becker, Elizabeth. "Pentagon Sets Up New Center for Waging Cyberwarfare." New York Times, 8 Oct. 1999. []

On 7 October 1999, JCS Chairman Gen. Henry Shelton announced the establishment of "a new center ... to defend the United States from hackers and to plot ways to attack an enemy's computer network.... The cyberwarfare center will take over what is now a scattered series of operations and will have headquarters in Colorado Springs under Gen. Richard Myers of the Air Force."

Bronk, Chris. "Treasure Trove or Trouble: Cyber-Enabled Intelligence and International Politics." American Intelligence Journal 28, no. 2 (2010): 26-30.

"As copying digital information is an exercise of relative ease, and network penetration remains possible despite the best efforts of some in government and a still-growing information security industry, the theft of digital data will likely continue to be a growth area."

Campen, Alan D.

1. and Douglas D. Dearth, eds. Cyberwar 2.0: Myths, Mysteries, Reality. Fairfax, VA: AFCEA International Press, 1998.

2. [and] Douglas D. Dearth, and R. Thomas Goodden, eds. Cyberwar: Strategy and Conflict in the Information Age. Fairfax, VA: AFCEA International Press, 1996.

According to Osbourne, MI 23.1, this book is "an anthology that describes the evolution of information and the capabilities and limitations of information in tomorrow's world."

Clark, Wesley K., and Peter L. Levin. "Securing the Information Highway: How to Enhance the United States' Electronic Defenses." Foreign Affairs 88, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 2009): 2-10.

"For electronically advanced adversaries, the United States' information technology (IT) infrastructure is an easy target.... From isolated intrusions to coordinated attacks, the number of network-based threats is growing.... Washington would be better off following a more 'open-source' approach to information sharing."

Collins, Sean, and Stephen McCombie. "Stuxnet: The Emergence of a New Cyber Weapon and Its Implications." Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism 7, no. 1 (Apr. 2012): 80-91.

"This paper examines Stuxnet's forerunners, Stuxnet in detail, its target, and its implication for critical infrastructure. Whatever the cost to create Stuxnet, it was far less than the cost of a traditional military attack. Future versions of Stuxnet may be used by nation states, terrorist groups, hacktivists and cyber criminals to achieve their own goals. In the future, cyber weapons may not be as restrained as Stuxnet. This malware has started a new arms race, and has created serious implications for the security of critical infrastructure worldwide."

Cordesman, Anthony H.  Cyber-threats, Information Warfare, and Critical Infrastructure Protection:  Defending the U.S. Homeland.  Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. 

Nance, Engage 3 (Oct. 2002), says that the author "provides a quick tour through some of the executive and legislative history surrounding critical infrastructure defense issues as a well as a brief look at the threat (as seen through the eyes of policy makers).... In the final analysis, however, the book would be well-served by additional attention to the private sector and local government contributions, especially where industries such as financial services have invested so heavily in effective counter-measures."

Correll, John T.  "War in Cyberspace."  Air Force Magazine, Jan. 1998, 32-36.

Dilanian, Ken. "Obama to Create New Agency to Coordinate Intelligence about Cyberthreats.'" Associated Press, 10 Feb. 2015. []

Lisa Monaco, assistant to the president for homeland security and counterterrorism, announced in a speech at the Wilson Center in Washington on 9 February 2015 that the White House will establish the Cyber Threats Intelligence Integration Center to coordinate cyberthreat intelligence. Currently, "[g]overnment expertise in analyzing the various cyberthreats resides in a number of agencies, including the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security, the National Security Agency and U.S. Cyber Command."

Drogin, Bob. "U.S. Scurries to Erect Cyber-Defenses." Los Angeles Times, 31 Oct. 1999. []

"[H]ow can an increasingly wired America best defend itself from hostile nations, foreign spies, terrorists or anyone else armed with a computer, an e-mail virus and the Internet? And how can America fight back in the strange new world of warp-speed warfare? The answers so far are not encouraging."

Fulghum, David A.

1.  "Computer Warfare Offense Takes Wing."  Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 Jan. 1998, 56-58.

2.  "Cyberwar Plans Trigger Intelligence Controversy."  Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 Jan. 1998, 52-54.

Gellman, Barton, and Ellen Nakashima. "U.S. Spy Agencies Mounted 231 Offensive Cyber-Operations in 2011, Documents Show." Washington Post, 30 Aug. 2013. []

According to top-secret documents provided to The Washington Post by NSA leaker Edward Snowden, "U.S. intelligence services carried out 231 offensive cyber-operations in 2011.... Additionally, under an extensive effort code-named GENIE, U.S. computer specialists break into foreign networks so that they can be put under surreptitious U.S. control. Budget documents say the $652 million project has placed 'covert implants,' sophisticated malware transmitted from far away, in computers, routers and firewalls on tens of thousands of machines every year, with plans to expand those numbers into the millions....

"The growth of Tailored Access Operations at the NSA has been accompanied by a major expansion of the CIA's Information Operations Center, or IOC. The CIA unit employs hundreds of people at facilities in Northern Virginia and has become one of the CIA's largest divisions. Its primary focus has shifted in recent years from counterterrorism to cybersecurity.... The military's cyber-operations, including U.S. Cyber Command, have drawn much of the public's attention, but the IOC undertakes some of the most notable offensive operations, including the recruitment of several new intelligence sources, the document said."

Graham, Bradley. "Military Grappling With Rules for Cyber Warfare." Washington Post, 8 Nov. 1999, A1. []

"During last spring's conflict with Yugoslavia, the Pentagon considered hacking into Serbian computer networks to disrupt military operations and basic civilian services. But it refrained from doing so, according to senior defense officials, because of continuing uncertainties and limitations surrounding the emerging field of cyber warfare."

Guisnel, Jean. Tr., Gui Masai. Cyberwars: Espionage on the Internet. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

A Publisher's Weekly reviewer, Oct. 1997, says that "[d]espite the breathless, sky-is-falling tone of much of this book," the author "clearly maps the terrain of the Internet 'warzone' and provides a solid overview of the many thorny questions swirling around digital privacy and property rightst.... Guisnel can get caught in sticky technical details, such as the role of cryptology in modern communications. Such lapses highlight the book's main problem: while it is a useful introduction to the politics of information exchange, it lacks a compelling central argument."

Mattern, Troy, John Felker, Randy Borum, and George Bamford. "Operational Levels of Cyber Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 4 (Winter 2014): 702-719.

Nakashima, Ellen. "Pentagon Cyber Unit Prompts Questions: New Command's Offensive Role Complicates Administration's Global Outreach." Washington Post, 13 Jun. 2009. []

Defense officials are creating a "cyber-command" to "defend military networks and develop offensive cyber-weapons, based on a strategy that brings together the military's cyber-warriors" and NSA. According to administration officials, the cyber-command "will focus strictly on military networks." However, "senior intelligence officials have also urged that the NSA use its abilities to help" DHS defend "critical computer systems."

Nakashima, Ellen, and Brian Krebs. "Obama Says He Will Name National Cybersecurity Adviser." Washington Post, 30 May 2009, A5. []

On 29 May 2009, President Obama "said he will name a senior White House official to coordinate government efforts to protect a 'strategic national asset': the digital networks that handle phone calls, e-mails, government and military data, and also control power grids, nuclear plants and airplane traffic.... The cybercoordinator will be a member of the National Security Council and the National Economic Council.... The official will coordinate government cybersecurity policies, work with the Office of Management and Budget to ensure agencies have enough money to defend their systems, and coordinate the response to a major cyberattack, Obama said."

See also, David E. Sanger and John Markoff, "Obama Outlines Coordinated Cyber-Security Plan," New York Times, 30 May 2009.

Waterman, Shaun. "Analysis: FBI Heads New Cyber Task Force." United Press International, 21 Apr. 2008. []

In the summer of 2007, "the FBI quietly established" the National Cyber Investigative Joint Task Force "with U.S. intelligence and other agencies to identify and respond to cyber threats against the United States.... [A]ccording to the man in charge, Shawn Henry, the bureau's deputy assistant director in charge of its cyber division," the group "has 'several dozen' personnel working together at an undisclosed location in the Washington area."

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