Materials presented in chronological order.
Pincus, Walter. "National Intelligence Director Proves to Be Difficult Post to Fill: Uncertainties Over Role, Authority Are Blamed for Delays." Washington Post, 31 Jan. 2005, A4. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
"Six weeks after President Bush signed the intelligence bill calling for a new director of national intelligence, the White House is still looking for what the president told reporters last week is 'the right person to handle this very sensitive position.' ... Within the intelligence community and on Capitol Hill, officials say they believe the delay stems at least partly from continuing uncertainty over what real power and authority the new director will have."
Pincus, Walter. "Bush's Intelligence Panel Gains Stature: Duties Expanding Amid Uncertainty." Washington Post, 7 Feb. 2005, A19. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
Since its creation on February 6, 2004, President Bush's Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, has been given "additional responsibilities beyond reviewing intelligence successes and failures over the past four years. For example, after the president signed the intelligence restructuring bill on Dec. 17, the panel was ordered to review how it could be implemented." The panel is chaired by retired federal judge Laurence H. Silberman and former senator Charles S. Robb (D-VA.).
Derksen, Kevin Michael. "Commentary: The Logistics of Actionable Intelligence Leading to 9/11." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 28, no. 3 (May 2005): 253-268.
The author defines actionable intelligence as "an awareness of the target, timing, and type of attack being planned." He, then, argues that at least one of these elements was missing from available threat signals, and concludes that "the 2001 attack could not have been prevented."
Pincus, Walter. "House Approves Intelligence Measure: Bill Would Not Limit Negroponte's Authority." Washington Post, 22 Jun. 2005, A6. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
In approving the fiscal 2006 intelligence authorization bill on 21 June 2005, the U.S. House of Representatives eliminated language that would have limited the authority of DNI John D. Negroponte to transfer employees in intelligence agencies to new duties. "The amount of funding provided ... is classified but is estimated to be $42 billion."
Jehl, Douglas. "White House to Ask C.I.A. to Manage Human Spying." New York Times, 28 Jun. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]
According to senior government officials on 27 June 2005, the White House has decided to reject classified recommendations by the Silberman-Robb commission "that would have given the Pentagon greater authority to conduct covert action.... The decision is a victory for the Central Intelligence Agency." The officials also said that "[t]he White House will also designate the C.I.A. as the main manager of the government's human spying operations, even those conducted by the Pentagon and the F.B.I....
"The plan for covert action was the only major recommendation explicitly rejected" by the White House. The commission's "recommendations about covert action were deleted from the public version of the ... report, but senior government officials said they would have allowed the Pentagon a larger role in carrying out intelligence, reconnaissance or sabotage missions more secretive than the operations already carried out by American Special Operations forces, which are defined as clandestine -- a shade less secret than covert."
Jehl, Douglas. "Intelligence Briefing for Bush Is Overhauled." New York Times, 20 Jul. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]
According to two senior intelligence officials on 19 July 2005, DNI John D. Negroponte has ordered that the President's Daily Brief (PDB) be expanded "to include significant contributions from sources other than the Central Intelligence Agency." In addition, the PDB "will soon be modified further to absorb a separate daily terrorist threat assessment."
Pincus, Walter. "CIA Spies Get a New Home Base: Agency Will Set Up the National Clandestine Service." Washington Post, 14 Oct. 2005, A6. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
On 13 October 2005, intelligence officials announced establishment of the National Clandestine Service (NCS) at the CIA, replacing the Directorate of Operations. The announcement gives the CIA Director "another title, national humint manager." The NCS director "will report to Goss, but the new agency's work will be overseen" by the DNI's staff. However, officials said the DNI's office "will not get involved in setting targets or running or approving specific covert operations. The DNI's role is 'to set policy,' one official said....
"The director of the NCS will have two deputies, one to run CIA clandestine operations and the other to coordinate activities of other overseas operators. The second deputy will also set standards for training by all agencies involved in intelligence, including tradecraft and the vetting or validation of foreign agents or sources being recruited."
Ignatius, David. "Danger Point In Spy Reform." Washington Post, 21 Oct. 2005, A23. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
"The most dangerous moment in any transition is halfway through, when the old structure is badly weakened but the new one isn't yet strong enough to carry the load. That's where the Bush administration stands in its incomplete effort to restructure the intelligence community.... [R]ather than consolidate and streamline the overlapping agencies, the new system has added even more boxes to the organization chart. The result has been a further layering of the intelligence community's bureaucracy and further demoralization among career intelligence officers."
Jehl, Douglas. "Spy Agencies Told to 'Bolster the Growth of Democracy.'" New York Times, 27 Oct. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]
"A new strategy document issued [on 26 October 2005] by the Bush administration ranks efforts to 'bolster the growth of democracy' among the three top missions for American intelligence agencies.... The top two 'mission objectives' are efforts to counter terrorism and weapons proliferation.... The strategy ... is unclassified, and the officials said it was not intended to apply in any way to any covert action that might be undertaken by the United States." See ODNI, "National Intelligence Strategy," at http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20051025_release.htm.
Myers, Lisa, Douglas Pasternak, and Rich Gardella. "Is the Pentagon Spying on Americans? Secret Database Obtained by NBC News Tracks 'Suspicious' Domestic Groups." MSNBC.com, 14 Dec. 2005. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10454316/]
"A secret 400-page Defense Department document ... lists ... more than 1,500 'suspicious incidents' across the country over a recent 10-month period." The document shows "how the U.S. military has stepped up intelligence collection inside this country since 9/11, which now includes the monitoring of peaceful anti-war and counter-military recruitment groups." Even incidents that "were discounted because they had no connection to the Department of Defense ... remained in the database.... The database obtained by NBC News is generated by Counterintelligence Field Activity" (CIFA).
Cloud, David S. "Pentagon Is Said to Mishandle a Counterterrorism Database." New York Times, 16 Dec. 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com]
Pentagon officials said on 15 December 2005 that "analysts appear not to have followed guidelines that require deleting information on American citizens and groups from a counterterrorism database within three months if they pose no security threats." Therefore, "dozens of alerts on antiwar meetings and peaceful protests appear to have remained in the database." The Defense Department database is "known as the Threat and Local Observation Notice reporting system, or Talon."
Pincus, Walter. "Pentagon's Intelligence Authority Widens: Fact Sheet Details Secretive Agency's Growth From Focus on Policy to Counterterrorism." Washington Post, 19 Dec. 2005, A10. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
According to a fact sheet obtained by the Washington Post, the Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA), "charged with protecting military facilities and personnel wherever they are, is carrying out intelligence collection, analysis and operations within the United States and abroad.... CIFA's authority is still growing." Earlier this month, DoD "gave CIFA authority to task domestic investigations and operations by the counterintelligence units of the military services."
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