Scott, Len, and Peter Jackson. "The Study of Intelligence in Theory and Practice." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 139-169.

The authors survey "the various approaches scholars have employed to study the role of intelligence in national and international politics." They argue "that from its inception intelligence studies has been characterized by its inter-disciplinary character and openness to different conceptual approaches.... [They] conclude that this is one of the great strengths of this sub-field and argue for a further broadening and deepening of the intelligence studies agenda."

Scott, Len V., and R. Gerald Hughes. "Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Change and Continuity or Crisis and Transformation?" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): 6-25.

"The need to understand the nature and limitations of intelligence formed a cornerstone of the Butler Report, in contrast to some of the American enquiries and debates.... The view that intelligence is in crisis is surely overstated, although, in the United States, the CIA has been severely buffeted and its role diminished." (Footnote omitted)

Scott, Len, R. Gerald Hughes, and Martin S. Alexander, eds.

1. "Special Issue on 'Change, Crisis and Transformation: Challenges for Western Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century.'" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): entire issue.

"This collection is based on the 'Choices for Western Intelligence: The Security Challenges of the Twenty-First Century' Conference, at University of Wales Conference Centre, Gregynog, 28-30 April 2007."

Click for Table of Contents.

2. Intelligence and International Security: New Perspectives and Agendas. London: Routledge, 2011.

This is an updated version of 1 above. The first chapter after the introduction is now R. Gerald Hughes and Len Scott, "The Future of Intelligence: Seeking Perfection in an Imperfect World?", pp. 6-24.

Peake, Studies55.3 (Sep. 2011), finds this volume to be "a practical, thought-provoking, and weighty contribution to the literature." The exception to that praise is the article by Jeffreys-Jones, which includes inaccurate historical background and "undocumented opinions."

To Lefebvre, IJI&C 25.1 (Spring 2012), this volume lacks "a coherent and well-articulated theme," but it "does reflect the quality and effort put into each chapter by its contributing scholars." Goodman, I&NS 27.4 (Aug. 2012), expresses a similar view, noting that while this work "contains interestying contributions, it suffers structurally and does not hang together as well as it might."

Scott, Len V., and Peter D. Jackson, eds.

1. "Special Issue on 'Understanding Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in Shadows.'" Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): entire issue.

2. Understanding Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in Shadows. Studies in Intelligence Series. London: Routledge, 2004.

Peake, Studies 49.3 (2005), comments that while the topics covered in this anthology of academic articles "are not new,... each one of the thoughtful papers conveys a need for wider understanding and study within academia and the public in the post-9/11 world." This is "a thought-provoking, valuable collection of ideas. There is much here for doctoral dissertations and today’s intelligence practitioners."

For Gustafson, I&NS 22.4 (Aug. 2007), this "is an excellent, and still current, state-of-the-art report penned at a critical point in time.... [I]n terms of a timely reflection on the field of intelligence studies, it covers all the major bases."

Seifert, Jeffrey W. Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 3 Apr. 2008. Available at:

"Data mining is becoming increasingly common in both the private and public sectors.... However, some of the homeland security data mining applications represent a significant expansion in the quantity and scope of data to be analyzed.... Questions that may be considered include the degree to which government agencies should use and mix commercial data with government data, whether data sources are being used for purposes other than those for which they were originally designed, and possible application of the Privacy Act to these initiatives. It is anticipated that congressional oversight of data mining projects will grow as data mining efforts continue to evolve."

Shorrock, Tim. Spies for Hire: The Secret World of Intelligence Outsourcing. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008.

Stein, Washington Post Book World, 1 Jun. 2008, sees this as a "valuable (and angry) book." The author says that intelligence contracting is now "a $45 billion-a-year industry,... chewing up three quarters of the estimated $60 billion intelligence budget. It is no longer limited mainly to providing hardware"; it reaches "from top to bottom, from data-mining contractors ... to spy handlers, regional intelligence analysts and ex-special operations troops who run paramilitary operations." The book is biased against outsourcing and "would have benefited mightily from interviews with some of the officials [Shorrock] lampoons. But one-sided though it is, it contains some important, timely truths about the influx of private entrepreneurs into America's spy agencies."

For Peake, Studies 52.4 (Dec. 2008) and Intelligencer 17.1 (Winter-Spring 2009), "[o]utsourcing may be as damaging as Shorrock contends, but he fails to make the case or provide a satisfactory alternative." Keiser, Proceedings 135.8 (Aug. 2009), finds that "[t]he book's strength lies in its exposition of fairly recent government-business collusion. But it lacks historical perspective.... The Bush administration did not invent" this way of doing business.

Nolan, AIJ 27.1 (Fall 2009), says that this work "provides an enjoyable read" for those who want "to learn more about the leading companies in the intelligence and national security fields.... However, for readers looking for a comprehensive, well-balanced examination of the relationship between business and government," it "does not deliver." The author "focuses on the negative aspects of the relationship ... and overlooks how business has contributed to improving intelligence capabilities since 9/11."

To Schwab, IJI&C 24.1 (Spring 2011), this is an "assiduously documented" book that "is primarily an exhaustive accounting of the intelligence contracting firms ... that have emerged or expanded since 9/11." However, the author has produced "a book that serves primarily as a data dump laced with an inflammatory vocabulary and alarmist tone instead of an incisive analytical study."

Shpiro, Shlomo. "The Media Strategies of Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 4 (Winter 2001-2002): 485-502.

The author looks at two models of structured intelligence service strategies for dealing with the media: One, the "defensive openness" model, is represented by the German intelligence services; the other, the "controlled exclusion" model, is represented by Israel.

Stanton, Louise. The Civilian-Military Divide: Obstacles to the Integration of Intelligence in the United States. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009.

Goldman, IJI&C 23.2 (Fall 2010), says that this work "helps explain some of the impediments to better collaboration among the agencies involved. But her work is just a start." He also notes that the book has all the elements of "a successfully defended diseertation. But such contents do little to enhance a book's professional appeal and acceptance."

Steele, Robert David. "Peacekeeping Intelligence and Information Peacekeeping." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 519-537.

Discusses the need for "developing a focused discipline or practice of peacekeeping intelligence (PKI) and information peacekeeping."

Strategic Insights. "The Democratic Challenge: Transparency, Accountability, and Effectiveness in Intelligence." 6, no. 3 (May 2007): Entire issue. []

Svendsen, Adam D.M. "The Globalization of Intelligence Since 9/11: The Optimization of Intelligence Liaison Arrangements." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 4 (Winter 2008-2009): 661-678.

"Washington still remains the major intelligence 'hub,' even perhaps the intelligence hegemon. This stems from its location at the center of the web of intelligence liaison arrangements that cover the globe.... Washington's greatest area of 'liaison dependency' now appears in the fickle realm of human intelligence (HUMINT) where the emphasis is upon connections with internal security services abroad."

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