Change, Crisis and Transformation

Scott, Len, R. Gerald Hughes, and Martin S. Alexander, eds. "Special Issue on 'Change, Crisis and Transformation: Challenges for Western Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century.'" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): entire issue.

"This collection is based on the 'Choices for Western Intelligence: The Security Challenges of the Twenty-First Century' Conference, at University of Wales Conference Centre, Gregynog, 28-30 April 2007."


1. Len Scott, R. Gerald Hughes, and Martin S. Alexander, "Introduction: Journeys in Twilight, " 1-5.

2. Len Scott and R. Gerald Hughes, "Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Change and Continuity or Crisis and Transformation?" 6-25.

"The need to understand the nature and limitations of intelligence formed a cornerstone of the Butler Report, in contrast to some of the American enquiries and debates.... The view that intelligence is in crisis is surely overstated, although, in the United States, the CIA has been severely buffeted and its role diminshed." (Footnote omitted)

3. Richard J. Aldrich, "Global Intelligence Co-operation versus Accountability: New Facets to an Old Problem," 26-56.

"It is hard to avoid the conclusion that intelligence liaison and accountability have never mixed well.... [T]he acceleration of intelligence liaison over the last decade has brought about a qualitative change in the nature of intelligence. Improved international intelligence cooperation has changed the way in which agencies work. Accordingly, the 'black hole' presented by liaison is now too big to ignore."

4. John Ferris, "'The Internationalism of Islam': The British Perception of a Muslim Menace, 1840-1951," 57-77.

"Between 1840 and 1951, British ideas of an Islamic menace focused first on the political self-consciousness of all Muslims, then on subterranean bodies which tried to bind masses and elites for political ends, and moved to nationalist movements with a narrow popular base, and finally to those with a mass base."

5. Peter Gill, "Security Intelligence and Human Rights: Illuminating the 'Heart of Darkness'?" 78-102.

This article discusses the "changed context [over the past two decades] for security intelligence; the place of it within law, rights and ethics; aspects of intelligence practice posing particular threat to rights such as informers and interrogation and, finally, the challenge for intelligence oversight."

6. Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, "Rise, Fall and Regeneration: From CIA to EU," 103-118.

From abstract: "The rise of the CIA and its Cold War analytical successes provided Europe with a model of how a federal polity might conduct foreign intelligence. The shortcomings and recent decline of the CIA are instructive, too, and have the additional effect of adding urgency to the need for the European Union to develop its own intelligence capability."

7. Don Munton, "Intelligence Cooperation Meets International Studies Theory: Explaining Canadian Operations in Castro's Cuba," 119-138.

"Canadian intelligence activities in Cuba went through three stages: a 'business as usual' exchange of information and assessments...; then a period of tasked intelligence gathering during which Canadian diplomats ... responded to American requests, and finally a decade during which a designated Canadian in Havana dealt more or less directly with the US Central Intelligence Agency and State Department."

8. Andrew Priest, "Review Article: From Saigon to Baghdad: The Vietnam Syndrome, the Iraq War and American Foreign Policy," 139-171.

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