2003 - 2004

Materials arranged chronologically.

Associated Press. "FBI Planning to Add Offices Overseas." Washington Post, 1 Apr. 2003, A13. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

In a $47 million expansion going to Congress, the FBI would open offices in Sarajevo, Jakarta, Tashkent, Kabul, Belgrade, and "other foreign capitals as part of a decade-long overseas expansion.... The blueprint also calls for adding 30 new FBI personnel, including 17 agents, to the nearly 200 stationed at 46 locations around the world.... Earlier this year, Congress agreed to give the FBI money to open new legat [legal attaché] offices" in Abu Dhabi, Kuala Lumpur, Tunis, Sanaa, and Tbilisi. "They will be in operation in coming months."

Eggen, Dan. "FBI Picks Another Outsider for Key Post: NSA Official Will Oversee Intelligence." Washington Post, 4 Apr. 2003, A19. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 3 April 2003, the FBI announced the appointment of Maureen S. Baginski, currently signals intelligence director at the NSA's Central Security Service, as the bureau's executive assistant director for intelligence. Steven C. McCraw was named to head the FBI's Office of Intelligence under Baginski. McCraw is a 20-year FBI veteran and currently heads the San Antonio field office.

Ragavan, Chitra, et al. "Special Report: Mueller's Mandate." U.S. News & World Report, 26 May 2003, 18-25.

The mandate of FBI Director Robert Mueller III is essentially to prevent terrorist attacks like those on 9/11. If he can fulfill this mandate, it "will represent the most sweeping structural and philosophical shift in the FBI's history. In a series of exclusive interviews with U.S. News, Mueller and his top aides detailed the steps they have begun to take. The changes, they say, mean transforming an investigative agency into an intelligence-gathering service and reorienting virtually everything about the FBI's institutional culture and its traditional operating procedures."

Lichtblau, Eric. "F.B.I. Is Reshaping Itself but Stretched Thin, Reports Say." New York Times, 19 Jun. 2003. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Separate studies by the General Accounting Office and the National Academy of Public Administration have concluded that the FBI "has made strong progress in reinventing itself since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, but doubts remain over its ability to balance terrorism investigations with its traditional crime-fighting duties." Together, the reports represent "the most comprehensive progress report to date" on the FBI's "efforts to remake itself into a front line of defense against terrorism."

Van Natta, Don. "Intelligence Critics Urge U.S. to Look to British Spy Agency." New York Times, 26 Jul. 2003. [http://www.nytimes.com]

The joint House-Senate committee report on the 9/11 terrorist attacks "have caused some critics to renew demands" for creation of "a domestic intelligence agency whose primary mission would be countering the terrorist threat at home." Sen. John Edwards (D-NC) and others "have said such an agency should be modeled after MI5.... The movement ... to create an organization like MI5 gained momentum in November [2002] after an advisory group led by [former Virginia governor] James S. Gilmore III ... recommended that a new agency should take over domestic intelligence gathering."

Shannon, Elaine, Timothy J. Burger, and Massimo Calabresi. "FBI Sets Up Shop in Yemen." Time, 9 Aug. 2003. [http://www.time.com]

The Yemeni government "has quietly allowed the FBI to open an office in its capital city, San'a." Along with the CIA and the U.S. military, the FBI "is urgently trying to disrupt efforts" by al-Qaeda fighters "to reconstitute command and control structures in parts of rural Yemen controlled by clans hostile to the government in San'a and sympathetic to Osama Bin Laden." [Clark comment: And the military and CIA cannot do this because they lack the FBI's experience overseas?]

Hitz, Frederick P., and Brian J. Weiss. "Helping the CIA and FBI Connect the Dots in the War on Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 1-41.

"For cooperation to succeed,... both law enforcement and intelligence agencies must become more open and more flexible, and understand that, in an age of abundant information, their value is not the information they hold, but their analysis and use of that information.... [T]he U.S. needs to organize itself, not against a specific threat, but on a reasonable division of labor."

Cumming, Alfred, and Todd Masse. FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 6 Apr. 2004. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL32336.html.

In response to criticism from the Congressional Joint Inquiry Into the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, the FBI is "attempting to transform itself into an agency that can prevent terrorist acts, rather than react to them as crimes. The major component of this effort is restructuring and upgrading of its various intelligence support units into a formal and integrated intelligence program, which includes the adoption of new operational practices, and the improvement of its information technology."

Duffy, Michael. "How To Fix Our Intelligence." Time, 18 Apr. 2004. [http://www.time.com]

Most of the members of the 9/11 commission have "come to think that a thorough overhaul of the way the nation organizes, collects and distributes intelligence [is] necessary.... Perhaps because it was the most dysfunctional agency of all, the FBI has done the most to try to heal itself since 9/11.... Under Director Robert Mueller,... the bureau has made counterterrorism one of its top three priorities." Acording to FBI experts, "Mueller has the right idea but ... the layers of agents and bureaucracy beneath him are reluctant to follow his direction.... Despite Mueller's focus on terrorism, agents are sometimes pulled away to handle traditional criminal cases. A long-awaited and badly needed computer overhaul is overbudget and behind schedule....

"The commission [has] found that the CIA shares some of the FBI's recessive genes." For example, "Tenet told his top managers in 1998 that the CIA was 'at war' with bin Laden, but the word never really filtered down through the agency, much less to other arms of the intelligence community....

"[S]ome changes are certain, particularly at the FBI." Legislation is being prepared in the House "that would create ... a 'service within the service' at the FBI to focus on intelligence gathering, not law enforcement." In addition, "support is growing on the Hill for a plan drafted by two-time National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft that would create a new intelligence czar with budget and program authority over the CIA and nearly a score of other intelligence units now under the Pentagon's control."

Rowley, Coleen. "What the FBI Needs -- and Doesn't Need." Time, 26 Apr. 2004, 33.

Eggen, Dan. "Intelligence Unit for FBI Is Proposed; Service Would Be Entity In Agency, Mueller Says." Washington Post, 4 Jun. 2004, A21. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 3 June 2004, at a hearing of the House Appropriations subcommittee on commerce, "FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III ... proposed the creation of an intelligence service within the FBI that would have its own director and budget and would operate separately from other parts of the law enforcement agency." The move "is aimed in large part at heading off proposals that would strip the bureau of its responsibilities for intelligence and espionage investigations in the United States and turn them over to a new agency akin to Britain's domestic intelligence service."

Lichtblau, Eric. "F.B.I. Said to Lag on Translations of Terror Tapes." New York Times, 28 Sep. 2004. [http://www.nytimes.com]

The summary of a Justice Department investigation, released on 27 September 2004 by FBI Inspector General Glenn A. Fine, says that "more than 120,000 hours of potentially valuable terrorism-related recordings have not yet been translated by linguists" at the FBI. In addition, "computer problems may have led the bureau to systematically erase some Qaeda recordings."

Walsh, Elsa. "Learning to Spy: Can Maureen Baginski Save the F.B.I.?" Intelligencer 14, no. 2 (Winter-Spring 2005): 31-38. Reprinted from New Yorker, 8 Nov. 2004, 96-103.

In May 2003, Maureen A. Baginski left NSA to run the FBI's new Office of Intelligence. She had been head of Signals Intelligence at NSA since October 2000, in which position she seems to have been a significant change-agent. The article looks at some of the problems Baginski has sought to address at the FBI, and quotes from Philip D. Zelikow, John MacGaffin, and others on some of the difficulties still facing the Bureau as an intelligence organization.

Mueller, Robert S., III. "The FBI: Improving Intelligence for a Safer America." Vital Speeches of the Day 71 (1 Dec. 2004): 106-109.

FBI Director.

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