2011 - 2015

Materials presented chronologically.

Best, Richard A., Jr. The National Intelligence Council: Issues and Options for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 10 Jan. 2011. Available at:

"Summary": "The National Intelligence Council (NIC), composed of some 18 senior analysts and national security policy experts, provides the U.S. intelligence community's best judgments on crucial international issues. NIC members are appointed by the Director of National Intelligence and routinely support his office and the National Security Council. Congress occasionally requests that the NIC prepare specific estimates and other analytical products that may be used during consideration of legislation. It is the purpose of this report to describe the statutory provisions that authorize the NIC, provide a brief history of its work, and review its role within the federal government. The report will focus on congressional interaction with the NIC and describe various options for modifying congressional oversight."

Best, Richard A., Jr. Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Dec. 2011. Available at:

From "Summary": "While the DNI's authorities are stronger than those that were available to the DCI, whether they are sufficient to implement the 2004 intelligence reforms mandated by Congress, it has been argued, will continue to depend on several factors, including the degree to which the authorities themselves are adequate, the DNI's willingness to assert those authorities, and the extent to which the DNI receives presidential and congressional support. The provisions in the FY2010 Intelligence Authorization Act permit more extensive congressional oversight in the 112th Congress."

Aftergood, Steven. "Office of Director of National Intelligence to Be Downsized." Secrecy News, 14 Feb 2011. []

DNI James R. Clapper Jr. told the HPSCI on 10 January 2011 that the ODNI will be "reduced in its size and budget." The DNI stated that based on an efficiencies review, "I decided to reduce or eliminate functions not required by law or executive order that are not core missions of the DNI. I also identified elements that should transfer out of the ODNI to another agency who would serve as the executive agent on my behalf and carry out these services of [common] concern on behalf of the ODNI."

Clapper's prepared remarks are available at:

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Public Affairs Office. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for FY 2012 Appropriations Requested for the National Intelligence Program." ODNI News Release No. 4-11. 14 Feb. 2011. []

The DNI has disclosed that the aggregate amount of appropriations requested for the National Intelligence Program for Fiscal Year 2012 is $55 billion. "Beyond the disclosure of the NIP top-line figure, there will be no other disclosures of currently classified budget information because such disclosures could harm national security."

Steven Aftergood, "A New Milestone in Intelligence Budget Disclosure," Secrecy News, 15 Feb. 2011, notes that "[t]he $55 billion requested for the NIP in FY 2012 represents a slight increase over the $53.1 billion appropriated for the NIP in FY 2010.  The FY 2011 NIP appropriation has not yet been published.  It is supposed to be disclosed at the end of the current fiscal year."

Pincus, Walter. "Clapper: ‘Double-Digit’ Cuts Coming for Intel Budget." Washington Post, 17 Oct. 2011. []

Speaking at a symposium of the U.S. Geospatial Intelligence Foundation in San Antonio, TX, on 17 October 2011, DNI James R. Clapper Jr.said he had just delivered to the OMB "a proposal that 'calls for cuts in the double-digit range ... over ten years.'" He added that "the government would try to find much of the savings by cutting back on contractors. In proposing reductions in what is now an $80.1 billion annual budget," Clapper "said that he was going to try to 'protect people' and that he hoped to find 'one half the savings' by reducing overlap among the myriad computer systems now operated by the 16 intelligence agencies that make up the community."

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Public Affairs Office. "Director Clapper Announces Steps to Deter and Detect Unauthorized Disclosures." ODNI News Release No. 9-12. 25 Jun. 2012. []

DNI James R. Clapper announced on 25 June 2012 "two immediate steps to help protect critical national security information from unauthorized disclosures.... Clapper is: (1) mandating that a question related to unauthorized disclosure of classified information be added to the counterintelligence polygraph used by all intelligence agencies that administer the examination (CIA, DIA, DOE, FBI, NGA, NRO, and NSA). (2) requesting the Intelligence Community Inspector General lead independent investigations of selected unauthorized disclosure cases when prosecution is declined by the Department of Justice."

For reportage, see Walter Pincus, "New Measures Approved to Stem Intelligence Leaks," Washington Post, 26 Jun. 2012; and Charlie Savage, "Intelligence Chief Announces New Rules to Curb Leaks," New York Times, 25 June. 2012.

Ignatius, David. "James Clapper, on Top of the Secret Empire." Washington Post, 23 Oct. 2013. []

"[T]here are welcome signs that this jury-rigged [DNI] structure may finally be starting to work.... [DNI James] Clapper has recently taken steps that forced the [NSA] to accept greater transparency and stopped the military agencies from wasteful spending on duplicative satellite imagery. Clapper is using management powers that were muddled under the confusing 2004 law.... The intelligence community is still way too big and turf-conscious, and it combines the worst features of bureaucracy and secrecy. . But at least someone is trying to manage this secret empire."

Aftergood, Steven. "Intelligence Directive Bars Unauthorized Contacts with News Media." Secrecy News, 21 Apr. 2014. []

An Intelligence Community Directive issued in March "prohibits unauthorized 'contact with the media about intelligence-related information, including intelligence sources, methods, activities, and judgments.'" See Intelligence Community Directive 119, "Media Contacts," signed 20 Mar. 2014, at:

Savage, Charles. "Intelligence Policy Bans Citation of Leaked Material." New York Times, 9 May 2014, A17. []

"A new pre-publication review policy for the Office of Director of National Intelligence says the agency's current and former employees and contractors may not cite news reports based on leaks in their speeches, opinion articles, books, term papers or other unofficial writings."

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2013 National Intelligence Program." ODNI News Release No. 24-13. 30 Oct. 2013. []

"The aggregate amount appropriated to the NIP for Fiscal Year 2013 was $52.7 billion, which was reduced by the amount sequestered to $49.0 billion."

Steven Aftergood, "Intelligence Spending Dropped Sharply Last Year." Secrecy News, 1 Nov. 2013, notes that declassified budget data for FY2013 discloses that "[t]otal U.S. intelligence spending last year declined by more than 10% ... the steepest one-year decline in intelligence spending since at least the end of the Cold War." The Department of Defense disclosed that the 2013 budget for the Military Intelligence Program was $19.2 billion, but that it was reduced by sequester to $18.6 billion."

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. "DNI Clapper Establishes the National Counterintelligence and Security Center." ODNI News Release No. 46-14. 1 Dec. 2014. []

DNI James R. Clapper announced on 1 December 2014 "the establishment of the National Counterintelligence and Security Center [NCSC]. National Counterintelligence Executive [NCIX] William 'Bil'” Evanina will assume the additional role as the NCSC Director. DNI Clapper said the establishment of the NCSC is the next step in the effective integration of counterintelligence and security missions under a single organization structure."

For reportage see Richard Abott, "DNI Establishes National Counterintelligence and Security Center," Defense Daily, 2 Dec. 2014; and J.J. Green, "New Intelligence Agency Established," WTOP, 1 Dec. 2014.

The NCSC Website is at:

Rovner, Joshua, and Austin Long. "Did the New Spooks on the Block Really Fix U.S Intelligence?" Foreign Policy, 27 Apr. 2015. []

"[T]he intelligence community has a lot to be proud of over the last decade.... But it is not clear ODNI deserves the credit.... Rather than facilitating coordination, the additional layer of bureaucracy can create friction.... [T]here are reasons to believe that the 'failure of coordination' argument is overstated. There was quite a lot of coordination before 9/11, and the failures were mainly due to human error rather than poor organizational design.... Ultimately, the major successes in U.S. counterterrorism after 9/11 were not due to intelligence reorganization but a change in policy."

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