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Allensworth, W.H., and W.G. Spottswood. The Cipher of the War Department. Washington, DC: GPO, 1902. [Petersen]

Alvarez, David. "Behind Venona: American Signals Intelligence in the Early Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 179-186.

A collection of documents at the National Archives from the records of the Chief of Naval Operations in the period 1947-1949 suggests that "there remains a range of still secret Sigint operations that were central to the intelligence history of the early Cold War."

Andrew, Christopher, ed.

1. "Special Issue on Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986): Entire issue.

This was the inaugural issue of the Intelligence and National Security journal. Appropriately, given the inclinations of editor Christopher Andrew, the issue emphasized Sigint and associated activities. Click for a listing of the articles in this volume.

2. Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence. London: Frank Cass, 1986.

Reprints articles previously published in Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1986).

Barker, Wayne G., ed. The History of Codes and Ciphers in the United States during the Period between the World Wars. 2 vols. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean, 1979. [http://carlisle-]

Bauer, Friedrich L. Kryptologie: Methoden und Maximen. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1993. Decrypted Secrets: Methods and Maxims of Cryptology. 4th, rev., and extended ed. Berlin: Spinger, 2007.

While noting that the author's reduction of cryptography and cryptanalysis to their mathematical bases makes it "hard for the non-mathematical reader," Kahn, Cryptologia 18.2, calls the original German edition of this work "the best single book now available on the cryptology of today."

Reviewing the fourth English-language edition, Christensen, Cryptologia 31.3 (Jul. 2007), notes that "Bauer's book has become a classic." This new edition "is excellent." However, it "falls short of what one might expect of a cryptology book published in 2007.... A comparable book that includes details of the last twenty years of cryptology should be written."

Krieger, JIH 6.2 (Winter 2006/7), says that "Bauer’s work is partly a great pleasure to read, partly a veritable treasure trove of techniques and of people often completely unknown to the amateur cryptologist." However, "this work was originally written for engineers, not for the mathematically challenged folks in the humanities. So, dear historians, just skip a page here or a table there, but do read on. It is well worth your time!"

Beckhough, Harry. Secret Communications: The Hidden Source of Information through the Ages .... From the Sumerians to the Cold War. London: Minerva, 1995.

Blackwood, Gary. Mysterious Messages: A History of Codes and Ciphers. New York: Dutton Children's Books, 2009.

Christensen, Cryptologia 34.3 (Jul. 2010), says that the stories of "early cryptology are told briefly and well, but there are errors in the descriptions of cryptology from World War I until today."

Bond, Raymond T., ed. Famous Stories of Code and Cipher. New York: Collier, 1965. [Petersen]

Boone, J.V. A Brief History of Cryptology. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.

From advertisement: The author "presents a historical overview of technological developments in cryptology and the closely associated fields of communications and computers.... Although he writes primarily from a military intelligence and command/control viewpoint, there are no involved explanations about how individual pieces of equipment function and no elaborate mathematical presentations." Kruh, Cryptologia 30.2 (Apr. 2006), says that "[t]his is an excellent, well written book with a great deal of interesting and useful information."

Budiansky, Stephen. "Losing the Code War." Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 2002, 33 ff.

"[T]here is no one to blame for what is probably by far the greatest setback in recent years to American capabilities for keeping tabs on terrorists: the fact that it is now virtually impossible to break the encrypted communication systems that PCs and the Internet have made available to everyone -- including, apparently, al Qaeda.... Signals intelligence is not completely dead, of course: bad guys make mistakes; they sometimes still use the phone or radio when they need to communicate in a hurry; and a surprising amount of useful intelligence can be gleaned from analyzing communication patterns even if the content of the communications is unreadable."

Budiansky, Stephen. "What's the Use of Cyyptologic History?" Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 6 (Dec. 2010): 767-777. Intelligencer 18. n0. 3 (Summer-Fall): 27-33.

The author argues that the secrecy surrounding intelligence in general and Sigint in particular distorts not just the writing of history but its very understanding. "Getting the history right is not just an exercise in satisfying academic curiosity. The understanding of history has profound and real consequences."

Burke, Colin. "From the Archives: The Last Bombe Run, 1955." Cryptologia 32, no. 3 (Jul. 2008): 277-279.

A recently declassified NSA document shows that the WWII Bombes were used as late as 1955 against East German police messages. The use ceased after discovery of the Berlin Tunnel.

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