Psychological and Propaganda Operations Generally

S - Z

Salminen, Esko. The Silenced Media: The Propaganda War between Russia and the West in Northern Europe. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. London: Macmillan, 1999.

Watt, I&NS 15.4, notes that the title here is "a little misleading, since his main theme, the efforts of the Soviet government to subdue the Finnish press partly by pressure on successive Finnish governments and partly by pressure on the owners and employees of the organs of the Finnish press[,] sets the balance of the book firmly on the Finnish-Soviet relationship."

Schleiffer, Ron. "Democracies, Limited War and Psychological Operations." Review of International Affairs 2 (Spring 2003): 41-54.

The author argues that in limited wars the democracies are particularly weak in waging the struggle for hearts and minds. On the other hand, insurgents make extensive use of psychological warfare in seeking to gain access to the media. Proposed changes within democracies are offered so psychological warfare might be more effectively employed.

Schwartz, Lowell H. Political Warfare against the Kremlin: US and British Propaganda Policy at the Beginning of the Cold War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

From publisher: This work provides "a comparative study of American and British propaganda policy during the first fifteen years of the Cold War.... The narrative is told across a broad historical canvas ranging from the debates inside the top levels of the U.S. and British governments about how to confront Soviet propaganda activities, to the secret government organization tasked with planning and organizing the political warfare efforts of the West, and the story behind the West's shortwave broadcasts beamed across the Iron Curtain into the Soviet Union."

Scott-Smith, Giles. "Interdoc and West European Psychological Warfare: The American Connection." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 2 & 3 (Apr.-Jun. 2011): 355-376.

From Abstract: The International Documentation and Information Center (Interdoc) "was established in The Hague in early 1963 ... to coordinate a transnational network ... active in ... analysing trends in communist ideology and societies.... Interdoc reflected a need to develop and project a European stance on Cold War issues separate from ... US influence. Yet the Americans were present from the beginning.... This article covers the details of this involvement."

Schroeder, H.-J. "Marshall Plan Propaganda in Austria and Western Germany." In The Marshall Plan in Austria, eds. G. Bischof, A. Pelinka, and D. Stiefel. Contemporary Austrian Studies, Vol 8. New Brunswick and London: Transaction, 2000.

Segell, Glen M. "Creating Intelligence: Information Operations in Iraq." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 89-109.

The author discusses the work of the Information Operations Task Force (IOTF) in Iraq. "The IOTF's specific information warfare was initiated through a media campaign essentially utilizing persuasion and dissuasion.... Specifically the IOTF was empowered to offer the Iraqi population alternatives more attractive than those offered by the insurgents and terrorists.... [I]ntelligence should not be limited to gathering and analyzing information"; "it can also create information aimed at 'winning the hearts and minds' of a population, while seeking to dissuade it from supporting an adversary."

Simpson, Christopher. Science of Coercion: Communication Research and Psychological Warfare, 1945-1960. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 1995. [pb]

Surveillant 3.6: The author argues that "government-funded psychological warfare programs bankroll[ed] most U.S. university research projects looking at techniques of political and military mobilization, persuasion, opinion measurement, interrogation, and ideological promotion during the Cold War."

Smith, Myron J., Jr. The Secret Wars: A Guide to Sources in English. 3 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 1980-1981.

Vol. I, Intelligence, Propaganda and Psychological Warfare, Resistance Movements, and Secret Operations.

Vol. II, Intelligence, Propaganda and Psychological Warfare, Covert Operations, 1945-1980.

Vol. III, International Terrorism, 1969-1980.

Clark comment: Smith's bibliography totals about 10,000 entries, referenced by category and author; there are no annotations. To Constantinides, this is "one of the most complete and useful references available to researchers and scholars." Nonetheless, it still misses "important books or books on significant individuals." See also, Allen E. Warnke, "The Secret Wars: A Guide to Sources in English," American Journal of International Law 77 (Jul. 1983): 717-718.

Snyder, Alvin A. Warriors of Disinformation: American Propaganda, Soviet Lies, and the Winning of the Cold War -- An Insider's Account. New York: Arcade, 1995.

According to Surveillant 4.4/5, the author tells the story of Charles Z. Wick's USIA and that organization's role in American foreign policy in the last decade of the Cold War.

Sorenson, Thomas C. The Word War: The Story of American Propaganda. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Starunskiy, A. G. "Psychological Operations of U.S. Military Services at the Present Stage." Military Thought 12 (2003): 162-172.

Szeredy, J. "Spyke" [TSgt/USAF] "Influence Operations: Integrated PSYOP Planning." Air & Space Power Journal 19, no. 1 (Spring 2005). []

"The US Air Force brings a multitude of PSYOP and influence-operations capabilities to all phases of military and diplomatic actions, and its broad base of experience can help planners find the perfect niche for assets and mission requirements."

Taithe, Bernard, and Tim Thornton, eds. Propaganda, Political Rhetoric and Identity. Phoenix Mill, UK: Sutton, 1999.

Taylor, Philip M. Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Era. Somerset, UK: Patrick Stephens Ltd, 1990. 3d ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003. [pb]

From advertisement: This work "traces how propaganda has formed part of the fabric of conflict since the dawn of warfare, and how in its broadest definition it has also been part of a process of persuasion at the heart of human communication.... This third edition has been revised and expanded to include a new preface, new chapters on the 1991 Gulf War, information age conflict in the post-Cold War era, and the world after the terrorist attacks of September 11."

Taylor, Philip M. "Propaganda and the Web War" The World Today 55, no. 6 (30 Jun. 1999): 10-12.

Tuch, Hans. Communicating with the World: U.S. Public Diplomacy Overseas. New York: St. Martin's, 1990.

U.S. Department of the Army. Psychological Operations Leaders Planning Guide. GTA [Graphic Training Aid] 33-01-001. Washington, DC: John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, Nov. 2005: [Available at:]

From "Introduction": "The focus of this GTA is to provide requisite information to help the tactical PSYOP Soldier better plan and execute PSYOP in support of a maneuver commander. Noncommissioned officers (NCOs) leading a three-man Psychological Operations team (TPT) or planning PSYOP at division or corps levels will find this GTA extremely helpful."

Vaughan, James R. The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Arab Middle East, 1945-1957: Unconquerable Minds. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Wilford, I&NS 22.6 (Dec. 2007), finds that this work "is firmly grounded in extensive archival research on both sides of the Atlantic.... The prose is remarkably assured ... and the material is well organized."

Weems, Miner L. "Propaganda as an Instrument of Foreign Policy." Southern Quarterly 4, no. 2 (1966): 144-158.

Wieck, Randolph. Ignorance Abroad: American Educational and Cultural Foreign Policy and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Whitton, John B., ed. Propaganda and the Cold War: A Princeton University Symposium. Washington, DC: Public Affairs, 1984.

Zacharias, Ellis M. "What Should the New Administration Do About Psychological Warfare?" Foreign Policy Bulletin 32 (Mar. 1953): 4-6.

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