Psychological and Propaganda Operations Generally

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Aftergood, Steven. "Army Establishes Psyops Branch." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 16 Jan. 2007. []

This item reports issuance by Secretary of the Army Francis J. Harvey on 12 January 2007 of General Order 30: "Effective 16 October 2006, Psychological Operations was established as a basic branch of the Army, pursuant to the authority of Section 3063(a)(13), Title 10, United States Code." General Order 30 is available at:

Allen, George V. "Propaganda: A Conscious Weapon of Diplomacy." Department of State Bulletin 21 (19 Dec. 1949): 941-943. [Petersen]

Atkinson, James. The Edge of War. Chicago: Regnery, 1960.

Wilcox: "Accounts of various forms of psychological warfare, disinformation, destabilization."

Becker, Howard. "The Nature and Consequences of Black Propaganda." American Sociological Review 14 (Apr. 1949): 221-235. [Petersen]

Brands, H.W., Jr. "C.D. Jackson: Psychological Warriors Never Die." In Cold Warriors: Eisenhower's Generation and American Foreign Policy. Contemporary American History Series. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Petersen notes that Jackson was a "White House planner for covert action in Europe."

Brockmiller, John. "Psywar in Intelligence Operations." Studies in Intelligence 5, no. 3 (Summer 1961): 49-55.

"The intelligence operator, whether collector or analyst, in any Western nation engaged in a defense effort against the Sino-Soviet bloc and the world Communist movement has at least four major reasons to take an active interest in psychological warfare."

Brown, Drusilla. "Psychological Operations (PSYOP): United States-Soviet Union." Military Intelligence 8, no. 4 (1982): 46-48.

Buckow, Anjana. Zwischen Propaganda und Realpolitik: Die USA und der sowjetisch besetzte Teil Deutschlands 1945-1955. USA-Studies 13. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2003.

von Buelow, H-German, H-Net Reviews, Oct. 2004, notes that the author discusses "the activities of RIAS (the famous broadcasting station in the American sector of Berlin) and various other propaganda efforts, particularly those aimed at East Germany's youth." However, Buckow concentrates "exclusively on the perceptions of a small group of American military and diplomatic policy-makers." Her "meticulous research could have paid more attention to the perceptions of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly since this group played a critical function during the Cold War (especially in Berlin), not merely in their role as furnishers of secret information to policy-makers but also as covert actors." (footnote omitted)

Cathala, Henri-Pierre. Le Temps De La Désinformation. Paris: Stock, 1986.

Curtis and Nichol, Annotated Bibliography of Psychological Operations (1989), say this work emphasizes "the United States and Western Europe, also treatment of disinformation used in Warsaw Pact countries."

Collins, Steven. "Army PSYOP in Bosnia: Capabilities and Constraints." Parameters, Summer 1999, 57-73. []

"The principal tool available for the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) and Stabilization Force (SFOR) to influence attitudes in Bosnia has been military psychological operations (PSYOP) forces, and most of the PSYOP forces accessible to NATO are in the US Army. The contribution of these forces has been laudable, but there have been many missed opportunities as well as misunderstandings over the last three and a half years regarding what PSYOP can and cannot do. This article examines the performance of PSYOP forces in Bosnia, offering recommendations on how to improve this vital part of the US contribution." (Footnotes omitted)

Corke, Sarah-Jane. "The Eisenhower Administration and Psychological Warfare." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 2 (Apr. 2009): 277-290.

This is a "Review Article" on works by Gati, Failed Illusions (2006); Osgood, Total War (2006); and Tudda, Truth Is Our Weapon (2006). However, the author's narrative on the subject makes it worth reading for its own sake.

Corke, Sarah-Jane. "George Kennan and the Inauguration of Political Warfare." Journal of Conflict Studies 26, no. 1 (Summer 2006): 98-117.

Cummings, Richard H.

1. "Balloons Over East Europe: The Cold War Leaflet Campaign of Radio Free Europe." Falling Leaf: The Quarterly Journal of the PsyWar Society 166 (Autumn 1999). []

"From October 1951 to November 1956, the skies of Central Europe were filled with more than 350,000 balloons carrying over 300,000,000 leaflets, posters, books, and other printed matter that were sent from West Germany over the Iron Curtain to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary. This paper ... trace[s] the reasons for this balloon saturation."

Clark comment: This paper includes an excellent, brief outline of the beginning of the Free Europe Committee and Radio Free Europe.

2. "Balloons Over East Europe: America's Covert Radio and Leaflet Operations in the Cold War." Falling Leaf: The Quarterly Journal of the PsyWar Society 197 (Summer 2008).

This is an updated version of the above with some new information and a new title.

3. "The Winds of Freedom and Crusade for Freedom.", 28 Apr. 2010. []

This article "look[s] at 'The Winds of Freedom', the first balloon-leaflet operation, and its effect on the 1951 Crusade for Freedom campaign in the United States."

4. "The Winds of Freedom, August 13, 1951.", 16 Aug. 2010. []

This article updates the one above with new information.

Cummings, Richard H. "The Intelligence Underpinnings of American Covert Radio Broadcasting in Germany During the Cold War." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 2 (Winter 2001). []

"This article ... partially lift[s] the veil of 50 years of secrecy surrounding the origins of the American covert psychological war waged in Germany. Radio Free Europe was set up as a private organization with the political support of United States Department of State and leading American foreign policy experts, and with the covert financial support of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.... This article also details one successful American covert psychological operation that took place from October 1951 to November 1956, when the skies of Central Europe were filled with more than 350,000 balloons carrying over 300,000,000 leaflets, posters, books, and other printed matter that were launched in Germany and dropped behind the Iron Curtain."

Curtis, Glenn, and Jim Nichol, Annotated Bibliography of Psychological Operations: A Report Prepared under an Interagency Agreement by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Jan 1989.

From "Introduction": This "bibliography contains over 300 citations of articles and mongraphs on the topic of psychological operations, disinformation, propaganda, and active measures."

Daugherty, William E., and Morris Janowitz. A Psychological Warfare Casebook. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1958. New York: Arno, 1979.

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