By Region


Post-Cold War

Dobbs, Michael. "Revolution by Focus Group." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 18 Dec. 2000, 13-14.

The Washington, DC-based National Democratic Institute (NDI) worked on much of the "$41 million U.S. democracy-building campaign in Serbia" that led to the defeat of Slobodan Milosevic. The overthrow of the Yugoslav President "may ... go down in history as the first poll-driven, focus group-tested revolution."

Ganser, Daniele. "The CIA in Western Europe and the Abuse of Human Rights." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 5 (Oct. 2006): 760-781.

Links the Italian elections of 1948 to "black" prisons in 2005 to postwar stay-behind networks. If the author truly believes that the name of the U.S. President is George Bush Junior, we need to start over with our research.

Risen, James. "Covert Plan Said to Take Aim at Milosevic's Hold on Power." New York Times, 18 Jun. 1999. []

According to U.S. officials, President Clinton has signed a "presidential finding" for a CIA covert action program "to try to destabilize the Yugoslav Government of Slobodan Milosevic."

Clark comment: Richard Carpenter found the following quote hilarious: "Few details of the new covert action plan ... are known." I agree that we should all protest keeping a covert action plan secret like that.

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