By Region


During the Cold War

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Fletcher, Richard. "How CIA Money Took the Teeth Out of British Socialism." In Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe, eds. Philip Agee and Louis Wolf, 188-200. London: Zed, 1978.

A similar essay, "Who Were THEY Travelling With?'" (pp. 51-71), is in Fred Hirsch and Richard Fletcher, The CIA and the Labour Movement (Nottingham, UK: Spokesman Books, 1977).

Gienow-Hecht, Jessica C.E. Transmission Impossible: American Journalism as Cultural Diplomacy in Postwar Germany. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1999.

Fischer, I&NS 16.3, notes that the author's focus is on the German-language newspaper, Neue Zeitung, launched by the U.S. Office of Military Government in Germany in 1945. The initial period of editorial autonomy ended in September 1947, after which the paper "became an instrument in the simmering propaganda war with the Soviet Union."

Goldstein, Cora Sol.

1. "The Control of Visual Representation: American Art Policy in Occupied Germany, 1945-1949." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 283-299.

"The post-war development of West German fine arts was the result of both the spontaneous revival of the German art scene, and the implementation of an OMGUS [Office of the Military Government for Germany, US] political agenda targeted at the use of art as a tool for political re-education."

2. Capturing the German Eye: American Visual Propaganda in Occupied Germany. Chicago: University of Chcago Press, 2009.

Dolan, Perspectives on Politcs 9.1 (Mar. 2011), says that "this informative and crisply written book ... analyzes how the Americans, who initially concentrated on photography and film..., gradually extended their efforts to painting and sculpture as they grasped the significance of these fine arts to the cultural consciousness of ordinary, as well as educated, Germans."

Grèmion, Pierre. L'Intelligence de L'Anticommunisme: Le Congrès pour la liberté de la culture à Paris, 1950-1975. Paris: Fayard, 1995.

Heuser, Beatrice. Western "Containment" Policies in the Cold War: The Yugoslav Case, 1948-53. London: Routledge, 1989.

Aldrich, I&NS 5.3, says that this work gives careful attention to the West's "liberation" strategies with regard to Yugoslavia and Albania, and "sets these operations in the refreshing context of the wider patterns of Western policy.... [T]his study will constitute essential reading ... for those who wish to gain an understanding of the place of covert activities within high-level Western policies in Europe before 1954."

Hirsch, Fred, and Richard Fletcher. The CIA and the Labour Movement. Nottingham, UK: Spokesman Books, 1977.

NameBase: "This little book is in two parts.... Hirsch's essay, 'The Labour Movement: Penetration Point for U.S. Intelligence and Transnationals' (pp. 7-48), is about the history and operations of the American Institute for Free Labor Development.... Most of Hirsch's essay is a case study of the AIFLD in Chile.... Richard Fletcher's essay, 'Who Were THEY Travelling With?' (pp. 51-71), concerns the deep pockets of U.S. intelligence and the effect this had on the British Labour Party.... Portions of this essay also appeared in Philip Agee and Louis Wolf, eds., 'Dirty Work' (pp. 188-200), under the title 'How CIA Money Took the Teeth Out of British Socialism.'"

Hughes, Quenby Olmsted. "In the Interest of Democracy": The Rise and Fall of the Early Cold War Alliance Between the American Federation of Labor and the Central Intelligence Agency. Bern: Peter Lang, 2011.

Clark comment: My review of this work appears as "Collaborating for Freedom," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 604-609. I note that "this is not a groundbreaking treatise, but rather a sparse little book ... that does not try to do too much." It "is simultaneously well researched and readable."

Karabell, Zachary. Architects of Intervention: The United States, the Third World, and the Cold War, 1946-1962. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

Cohen, FA 78.6 (Nov.-Dec. 1999), believes that the author "writes well and does a service by combining case studies on American intervention in Greece, Italy, Iran, Guatemala, Lebanon, Cuba, and Laos. He is strongest on Iran and Lebanon, weakest on Cuba and Laos, and includes no studies of intervention by the Soviets, Chinese, British, or French." To Sullivan, I&NS 16.2, this is "a readable engaging work," the basic thesis of which is that "local elites essentially manipulated the United States into intervening in their countries to shore up reactionary forces there."

Kotek, Joël.

1. Tr., Ralph Blumenau. Students and the Cold War. London: Macmillan, 1996. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.

Aldrich, I&NS 18.2/131/fn.2, calls this a "path-breaking work." Paget, I&NS 18.2/159/fn.10, notes that Kotek "describes the ISC in 1952 as 'close to bankruptcy', and argues that action by a CIA conduit saved the ISC and COSEC."

2. "Youth Organizations as a Battlefield in the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 168-191.

"[F]rom 1952 onwards large sums of [CIA] money went to organizations that were for the most part progressive and were actually independent, so much so that towards the end of the 1960s they did not hesitate to criticize [U.S.] foreign policy.... The situation was not, however, as paradoxical as it seems; we must remember that the chief objective of the intervention was not to control or intervene in the internal affairs of these organizations, but to break the communist monopoly."

Kristol, Irving. Looking Back, Looking Ahead: Reflections of a Neoconservative. New York: Basic, 1983.

These are memoirs of the editor of Encounter.

Kwitny, Jonathan. "The C.I.A.'s Secret Armies in Europe." The Nation, 6 Apr. 1992, 444-448.

The author furnishes a broad overview of some of the discussion surrounding exposure of the stay-behind activities begun by the United States in European countries in the early days of the Cold War. Former U.S. and European officials are quoted, including David Whipple, Victor Marchetti, Richard Helms, Thomas Polgar, Franklin Lindsey, Edward Barnes, and Paul Garbler. Kwitny concludes that "[p]ending unexpected new evidence of violence, the stay-behind matter seems closed."

Lardner, George, Jr. "History of U.S.-Greek Ties Blocked." Washington Post, 17 Aug. 2001, A21. []

James E. Miller, a retired State Department historian, says that the U.S. Government Printing Office is withholding distribution of the volume of the Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) series that deals with Greece in the period 1964-1968 because of CIA objections to its publication. According to Miller, CIA officials are concerned about documents regarding "two proposals to influence Greek politicians and elections."

Lasch, Christopher. "The Cultural Cold War: A Short History of the Congress for Cultural Freedom." In Towards a New Past, ed. Barton Bernstein, 332-334. New York: Pantheon, 1968.

Lee, J.M. "British Cultural Diplomacy and the Cold War, 1945-61." Diplomacy and Statecraft 9, no. 1 (Mar. 1998): 112-134.

Lucas, W. Scott. "Beyond Freedom, Beyond Control: Approaches to Culture and the State-Private Network in the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 53-72.

While "the CIA led the implementation of the government's cultural strategy, it was a 'total' strategy which involved all agencies in the Executive.... The operations were part of an integrated strategy.... To put it bluntly, if the US government had not covertly funded the 'private' efforts (or, in some cases, assisted in their funding through foundations...), they would not have existed."

Matthews, John P.C. "The West's Secret Marshall Plan for the Mind." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 409-427.

The author, a participant in the program, tells the story of the Free Europe Press (FEP) and its mailing program to East Europe and the Soviet Union, which lasted from 1956 to 1993. He concludes his article with the somewhat wistful thought of the importance of George Minden's extensive files sitting in Washington or a country warehouse somewhere.

Miller, James.

1. "Taking Off the Gloves: The United States and the Italian Elections of 1948." Diplomatic History 7, no. 1 (Winter 1983): 35-55.

2. The United States and Italy, 1940-1950: The Politics and Diplomacy of Stabilization. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Mistry, Kaeten.

1. "Approaches to Understanding the Inaugural CIA Covert Operation in Italy: Exploding Useful Myths." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 2 & 3 (Apr.-Jun. 2011): 246-268.

The author suggests that "[a] more fruitful path to advancing the historiographical debate [about the CIA's role in the 1948 Italian elections] is to highlight CIA intervention in the wider context of US foreign relations and Italian policy objectives.... Agency activities were improvised and far from pivotal amid the [broader] American mobilization." Clark comment: This is a highly interesting and well-argued article.

2. "The Case for Political Warfare: Strategy, Organization and US Involvement in the 1948 Italian Election." Cold War History 6, no. 3 (Aug. 2006): 301-329.

From abstract: "This article analyzes US intervention in the Italian election of 1948 and the influence of the campaign on attempts to formulate a comprehensive, coordinated strategy to defeat Soviet Communism…. The campaign in Italy contributed to the core of an emerging Political Warfare strategy, but one that overlooked the crucial contribution of Italian actors, which in the long term compromised both Italian-American relations and US attempts at expanding Political Warfare."

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