Generally and by Country

Included here:

1. Generally

2. Somalia

3. South Africa

1. Generally

Gleijeses, Piero. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Schwab, Perspectives on Politics 1.2, calls this work "a superb study of the intersection of U.S., Soviet, and Cuban political, diplomatic, and military strategy in Africa during the height of the Cold War. Conflicting Missions is dazzlingly researched, and ... so beautifully crafted and thorough that it is mesmerizing." The author "makes the argument that decisions regarding Cuban military activity in Africa were fashioned almost entirely independent of Moscow. Indeed, the USSR was often informed only after the fact."

For Berger, I&NS 19.1, this work "is a masterful analysis of Cuban involvement in Africa.... It will no doubt stand for many years as the definitive study of Cold War diplomacy in southern Africa." Waters, H-Diplo, H-Net Reviews, Jul. 2002 [], finds that "[t]he bibliography and footnotes in Conflicting Missions are comprehensive, the maps well placed and useful, the photos informative with long and descriptive captions, and the index thorough. Gleijeses writes beautifully, and his judgments are measured and fair. Every chapter begins with a short paragraph that is a hard jewel of concision and elegance."

Lemarchand, Rene. "The CIA in Africa." Journal of Modern African Studies (Sep. 1976).

Livingstone, Neil C., and David Halevy. "Miracle in the Desert: The CIA's Role in the Rescue of the Black Jews of Ethiopia." Intelligencer 20, no 2 (Fall-Winter 2013): 33-42.

A nicely told story (no sources) of a covert humanitarian operation in March 1985, conducted as a favor to Israel (plus the exfiltration of four Mossad personnel a week later).

Ray, Ellen, William Schaap, Karl Van Meter, and Louis Wolf, eds. Dirty Work 2: The CIA in Africa. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, 1979.

This book followed the political line and style of Agee and Wolf, Dirty Work: The CIA in Western Europe (1978). The introduction is by Agee.

2. Somalia

Loeb, Vernon. "Confessions of a Hero." Washington Post, 29 Apr. 2001, F1. [http://www.]

While recounting the difficulties Intelligence Star-holder and 13-year CIA veteran Mike Shanklin has had with the polygraph, the article also offers up some interesting tidbits about the CIA's activities in Somalia in the early 1990s.

Mazzetti, Mark. "Efforts by C.I.A. Fail in Somalia, Officials Charge." New York Times, 8 Jun. 2006. []

The CIA's "covert effort ... to finance Somali warlords has drawn sharp criticism" from U.S. government officials "who say the campaign has thwarted counterterrorism efforts inside Somalia and empowered the same Islamic groups it was intended to marginalize." The "activities in Somalia ... were reaffirmed during a National Security Council meeting about Somalia in March, according to people familiar with the meeting. During the March meeting,... a decision was made to make counterterrorism the top policy priority for Somalia."

Morgan, David. "Experts Say US Funding Somali Warlords." Reuters, 5 Jun. 2006. []

"The United States has been funneling more than $100,000 a month to warlords battling Islamist militia in Somalia," according to "John Prendergast, who monitors Somalia for the think-tank International Crisis Group.... [F]ormer U.S. intelligence officials, speaking on condition of anonymity..., said an operation to support the warlords' alliance appeared to involve both the CIA and U.S. military.... The former intelligence officials said the operation was controlled by the Pentagon through U.S. Central Command's Combined Joint Task Force for the Horn of Africa, a counterterrorism mission based in neighboring Djibouti established after the September 11, 2001 attacks."

Naylor, Sean D. "The Secret War." Series in Army Times []

1. "How U.S. Hunted AQ in Africa: Clandestine SEAL Mission Planted Cameras, but Little Came Out of the Images." 30 Oct. 2011.

2. "Lack of Human Intel Hampered AQ Hunt in Africa." 8 Nov. 2011.

3. "Clandestine Somalia Missions Yield AQ Targets." 14 Nov. 2011.

4. "Years of Detective Work Led to al-Qaida Target: Often-Frustrating Search for Harun Fazul Combined High-tech Gear, Low Tech Human Intelligence and Courage." 21 Nov. 2011.

5. "Tense Ties Plagued Africa Ops." 28 Nov. 2011.

6. "Africa Ops May Be Just Starting." 5 Dec. 2011.

Whitlock, Craig. "U.S. Has Deployed Military Advisers to Somalia, Officials Say." Washington Post, 10 Jan. 2014. []

According to three U.S. military officials, the Pentagon "secretly deployed a small number of trainers and advisers [fewer than two dozen] to Somalia in October, the first time regular troops have been stationed in the war-ravaged country since 1993." Their role is "to advise and coordinate operations with African troops fighting to wrest control of the country from the al-Shabab militia....

"Drones from a U.S. base in Djibouti ... conduct surveillance missions and occasional airstrikes from Somalia's skies. Elite Special Operations forces have also set foot on Somali territory on rare occasions to carry out counterterrorism raids and hostage rescues, but only in the shadows and for no more than a few hours at a time.... The CIA has quietly operated a base in Somalia for years and finances Somali security forces, but largely keeps its activities there under wraps."

3. South Africa

Cummings, Richard. "A Diamond Is Forever: Mandela Triumphs, Buthelezi and de Klerk Survive, and ANC on the U.S. Payroll." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 155-177.

Cummings surveys the U.S. support to elements of the anti-apartheid movement. He gives particular attention to Allard K. Lowenstein's involvement with the CIA in South Africa [see Cummings' The Pied Piper (1985)]. The rise and decline of Buthelezi as a Right wing alternative to the ANC and Mandela's "incredible balancing act" in setting up his government also get comment. There is an element of continuing to blacken Lowenstein's reputation here, as in the earlier book. Cummings clearly has difficulty in understanding the existence and validity of an "anti-communist Left" in the American political spectrum. He has done well to confine his conspiracist innuendo about the deaths of Tom Gervasi and Sam Adams to the footnotes (see fn. 9, pp. 170-171).

Mokoena, Kenneth, ed. South Africa and the United States: The Declassified History. New York: New Press, 1993.

According to O'Brien, I&NS 12.3, this edited collection examines "the nature of the covert relationship between South Africa and the United States." Studying the documentation provided here makes it "clear that the relationship extended into all areas of inter-state relations, and was not restricted solely to covert and/or paramiitary co-operation between the two states in 'stabilizing' southern Africa against the perceived communist threat."

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