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Aspin, Les. "Covert Action: Questions to Consider." First Principles 6 (May 1981): 10-12.

Petersen identifies Aspin as "[a] leading Congressional critic." Clark comment: On the other hand, I never viewed Aspin as a critic of the CIA -- critical, certainly, at times; but not a critic per se.

Aubin, Stephen. "Covert Action -- Renegade Operations Out of Control?" International Combat Arms 7 (May 1989): 20-25. [Petersen]

Beitz, Charles. "Covert Intervention as a Moral Problem." Ethics and International Affairs 3 (1989): 45-60.

Blum, William.

1. The CIA, A Forgotten History: U.S. Global Interventions Since World War 2. London: Zed Books, 1986.

Clark comment: This book is stridently critical of U.S. policy, in general, and of the CIA, specifically, with regard to covert action interventions in other countries during the Cold War. This is not a work of scholarship but of advocacy for a particular ideological world view.

Jeffreys-Jones, I&NS 3.2, says that the "bulk of the book is a compendium of stale rumour based on press reports, the source giving the lie to the thesis" stated in the title. Mercer, I&NS 3.2, comes to the same basic conclusion on this book, finding the author's thesis "somewhat less than believable."

A Namebase review credited to D. Brandt and W. Blum [the latter is most probably the author], calls this book "the only well-documented book on CIA history that is arranged country by country, year by year. It describes and analyzes the known significant interventions throughout the world since 1945 that have been carried out through the CIA and other branches of U.S. government."

2. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995.

Clark comment: This appears to be rebottled vinegar from Blum, The CIA, A Forgotten History. (Based on the first book, I'm not about to spend the money to confirm or deny this supposition.)

Surveillant 4.2 notes only that this "is a revised edition of Blum's 1986 book ..., with a new title." A posting in the Internet newsgroup "" by " (bill blum)," on 18 Sep. 1995, argues that "Killing Hope is a greatly enlarged and updated revision of The CIA, A Forgotten History."

In another Internet posting, former CIA officer and current critic, Ralph McGehee, refers to Killing Hope as "an encyclopedia of CIA covert operations [that] should be used as a textbook for studies of the CIA and military interventions since the end of World War Two. The clear writing style, summarizing the operations of the Agency, vividly conveys the dreadful consequences of those operations on target peoples.... 'Killing Hope,' because of its broad-brush treatment of some of the operations, provides an overview rather than comprehensive coverage of major covert operations. Undoubtedly there are some omissions and errors but this is standard with any discussion of still secret clandestine operations."

Bozeman, Adda B. "Covert Action and Foreign Policy." In Intelligence Requirements for the 1980s: Covert Action, ed. Roy S. Godson, 15-78. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1981.

Canon, David. "Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA's Covert Operations." Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 197-214.[]

This writer would solve the intelligence-ethics dilemma by "[a]bolish[ing] all covert operations, except those involving counter-intelligence, which must be purely defensive in nature" and relying on "overt intelligence gathering" and "technological means of getting information."

Carver, George A., Jr. "Covert Action an Essential Form of Diplomacy." Human Events 12 (Dec. 1987).

The author is a former CIA official.

Charters, David A. "The Role of Intelligence Services in the Direction of Covert Paramilitary Operations." In Intelligence: Policy and Process, eds. Alfred C. Maurer, Marion D. Tunstall, and James M. Keagle, 333-351. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985.

Chomeau, John B. "Covert Action's Proper Role in U.S. Policy." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 3 (Fall 1988): 407-413.

The author argues that there is a role -- a proper role -- for covert actions in U.S. policy, and that there are ways to assure that they are undertaken within the bounds of the law.

Cinquegrana, Americo R. "Dancing in the Dark: Accepting the Invitation to Struggle in the Context of 'Covert Action,' The Iran-Contra Affair and the Intelligence Oversight Process." Houston Journal of International Law 11, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 177-209.

Petersen: "Analysis of oversight legislation and executive orders 1976-1988."

Cline, Ray S.

1. "Covert Action as Presidential Prerogative." Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 12, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 357-369.

2. "Covert Action Is Needed for United States Security." In Conflict in American Foreign Policy, eds D. Mansfield and G. Buckley, 72- 77. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1985. [Petersen]

3. and Richard Larkin. Covert Action and the Nation's Security. Washington, DC: Hale Foundation, n.d.

Codevilla, Angelo. "Covert Action and Foreign Policy." In Intelligence Requirements for the 1980s: Covert Action, ed. Roy Godson, 79-104. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1981.

Cohen, William S. [Sen.; R-ME]

1. "Congressional Oversight of Covert Actions." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 155-162.

The then-SSCI member (later Secretary of Defense) argues in favor of the "48-hour rule" on notification of Congress regarding covert actions. He also discusses some of the oversight problems involved in such activities.

2. "Congressional Oversight of Covert Actions: The Public's Stake in the Forty-Eight Hour Rule." Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 12, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 285-302.

Cummings, Richard. The Pied Piper: Allard K. Lowenstein and the Liberal Dream. New York: Grove Press, 1985.

See Hendrik Hertzberg, "The Second Assassination of Allard Lowenstein," New York Review of Books, 10 Oct. 1985, for a review that takes issue with Cummings' linking Lowenstein to the CIA. (Oh, the horror of it all!) See also William H. Chafe, Never Stop Running: Allard Lowenstein and the Struggle to Save American Liberalism (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

Damrosh, Lori F. "Covert Operations." American Journal of International Law 83 (Oct. 1989): 795-805.

Expresses the belief that Congress needs to play a more active oversight role with regard to covert activities.

Fowler, Wyche, Jr. [Rep., GA-D] "Congress and the Control of Covert Operations." First Principles 9, no. 4 (Mar.-Apr. 1984): 1, 4-7.

Petersen: "Legislative critic" of covert action.

Goodman, Allan E.

1. "Does Covert Action Have a Future?" Parameters 18 (Jun. 1988): 74-88.

The author argues that covert actions should be a function of the Defense Department, not the CIA.

2. "Secret Operations: Does Covert Action Have a Future?" Current 306 (Oct. 1988): 27-30.

Halperin, Morton H. "Prohibiting Covert Operations." First Principles 12, no. 2 (1987): 13-14, 16. [Petersen]

Hamilton, Lee [Rep., IN-D]. "Toward Effective, Lawful Covert Actions." Wall Street Journal, 24 Aug. 1987, 26.

Harper's Magazine. Panel. "Should the U.S. Fight Secret Wars?" 42 (Sep. 1984): 33-47.

Petersen: "Panel: Daniel Moynihan, William Colby, Ralph McGehee, John Stockwell, Angelo Codevilla, George Ball, Morton Halperin, Leslie Gelb, Ray Cline."

Isenberg, David. The Pitfalls of U.S. Covert Operations. Policy Analysis No. 118. Washington,DC: Cato Institute, 7 Apr. 1989. []

"An examination of U.S. covert-action policy since World War II reveals two facts that are not always fully appreciated. First, both the scope and the scale of such operations have been enormous.... Second, the success of U.S. covert operations has been exaggerated."

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