A - I

See "George H. Sharpe: Grant's Intelligence Chief in the East" at the Huachuca History Program under "Masters of the Intelligence Art":

Allen. Thomas B. Harriet Tubman, Secret Agent: How Daring Slaves and Free Blacks Spied for the Union during the Civil War. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2006.

The reviewer in NIPQ 23.1 (Jan. 2007), found this book, written for school-age children, "enjoyable and learned things he never before knew." The author "has gone back into archives and put together a fascinating story which provides information previously missing -- or covered only superficially -- in almost all histories of the Civil War."

Andrews, J. Cutler. The North Reports the Civil War. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1955.

Antonucci, Michael. "Code-Crackers: Cryptanalysis in the Civil War." Civil War Times Illustrated, Jul.-Aug. 1995, 46-53. []

This article describes Confederate and Union ciphers and each side's effort to read the other's messages.

Baker, Lafayette C.

1. Daring Exploits of Scouts and Spies. Chicago: Thompson & Thomas, 1894.

2. History of the United States Secret Service. Philadelphia: L.C. Baker, 1867. Philadelphia: King & Baird, 1868.

Petersen notes that the "Federal 'secret service,' run first by the Pinkerton detective agency and then by Lafayette Baker, was essentially a counterintelligence organization. Baker's writings are considered unreliable by experts." Fishel, Secret War, pp. 25-26, says that Baker "grossly inflates" his Civil War activities. But no matter how much Baker's saga "stretches credulity," there is sufficient evidence available that "it cannot be entirely written off."

Bates, David Homer. Lincoln in the Telegraph Office: Recollections of the U.S. Military Telegraph Corps During the Civil War. New York: Century, 1907. New York: Appleton- Century, 1939. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, [1996]. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2007. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library, 2009.

Constantinides: Bates "was manager of the U.S. War Department Telegraph Office and a cipher-operator ... 1861-1866.... Unfortunately only some four chapters are devoted to codes, ciphers, and cryptologic matters and to Union counterintelligence -- using deciphered messages against Confederate agents.... A historical gem is his description of President Lincoln's interest in the breaking of enciphered Confederate messages." According to Kruh, Cryptologia 20.4, this book is "a minor classic and an important resource for Lincoln biographers and Civil War historians."

Brown, J. Willard. The Signal Corps U.S.A. in the War of the Rebellion. Boston: U.S. Veteran Signal Corps Assn., 1896.

Brown, Spencer K. Ed., George Gardner Smith. Spencer Kellogg Brown, His Life in Kansas and His Death as a Spy, 1842-1863, as Disclosed in His Diary. New York: Appleton, 1903.

Burnham, George Pickering. Memoirs of the United States Secret Service: (compiled by permission, from the department records) with accurate portraits of prominent members of the detective force, some of their most notable captures, and a brief account of the life of Col. H.C. Whitley, chief of the division. Boston: Lee & Shephard, 1872.

Byrne, Robert. "Combat Intelligence: Key to Victory at Gettysburg." Military Intelligence 2 (Fall 1976): 5-9. [Petersen]

Canan, Howard V. "Phil Sheridan, a Superb Combat Intelligence Officer." Armor 71 (Nov.-Dec. 1962): 56-61. [Petersen]

Curts, Bob. "U.S. Grant Goes to Shiloh: More Thoughts on Warning and Surprise." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 5, no. 1 (Winter 1989): 5-8.

Downs, Edward C.

The following works recount the exploits of C. Lorain Ruggles, 20th Ohio.

1. Four Years a Scout and Spy: "General Bunker," One of Lieut. General Grant's Most Daring and Successful Scouts. Zanesville, OH: H. Dunne, 1866.

2. The Great American Scout and Spy, "General Bunker." New York: Olmstead, 1870.

Elley, B.L. Grant's Final Campaign: Intelligence and Communications Support. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1992. [Surveillant 3.2/3]

Feis, William B. Grant's Secret Service: The Intelligence War from Belmont to Appomattox. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.

From publisher: "In the western theater, Grant was successful despite limited intelligence resources.... In the absence of intelligence data, Grant's initiative, determination, and drive carried him to success. In the East, however, to overcome Lee's advantages of strategic and operational mobility coupled with his own initiative, Grant had to adapt and became more reliant on intelligence to provide information on Confederate movements and intentions."

Miller, Library Journal (from, finds that the author "counters the common view that Ulysses Grant disdained military intelligence and fought on intuition alone by showing that Grant slowly acquired respect for and reliance on intelligence as the complexity and range of war widened and as intelligence gathering improved.... [F]inding the enemy and then striking him hard and often was Grant's formula for success. Military intelligence allowed him to act and especially guided his strategy in the East in 1864 and 1865.... Feis's book offers the first full-dress study of military intelligence and Grant's command. It also provides an essential primer on the ways intelligence was gathered and assessed during the war."

Feis, William B. "Neutralizing the Valley: The Role of Military Intelligence in the Defeat of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, 1864-1865." Civil War History 39, no. 3 (Sep. 1993): 199-215.

ProQuest: "Good information coming at the right time was a key asset in the Union high command's effort to remove the Valley's strategic assets from Robert E. Lee's grasp and eliminate Early's chances to imitate Stonewall Jackson's Shenandoah Valley masterpiece of 1962."

Feis, William B. "A Union Military Intelligence Failure: Jubal Early's Raid, June 12-June 14, 1964." Civil War History 36, no. 3 (Sep. 1990), 209-225.

Ferryman, Randy D. "The Unresolved Tension between Warriors and Journalists during the Civil War." Studies in Intelligence 58, no. 3 (Sep. 2014): 21-31.

"From the beginning of the war until its conclusion, the U.S. government and the northern press were unable to resolve several disputes over press disclosures and news controls.... As our forebears discovered during the Civil War, deciding where to draw the line without compromising competing constitutional values is a difficult and recurring debate."

Finnegan, John P. "The Union's Blind Eyes: HUMINT in the Civil War." Military Intelligence 15 (Jul.-Sep. 1989): 38-39.

Fishel, Edwin C. "Errata? Yes, We Have Some." Foreign Intelligence Literary Scene 12, no. 3 (1988): 12.

Hall, Richard. Patriots in Disguise: Women Warriors of the Civil War. New York: Paragon House, 1993.

Surveillant 3.2/3: "Of particular interest is his account of Private Franklin Thompson [Sarah Emma Edmonds] who served as a spy and orderly for the North, and as a nurse."

Hirshon, Stanley P. Grenville M. Dodge: Soldier, Politician, Railroad Pioneer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1967.

Petersen identifies Dodge as a "Union general in the west skillful in intelligence and counterintelligence operations" and an "[i]mportant Union intelligence figure in the west." See "Grenville M. Dodge: Grant's Intelligence Chief in the West" at the Huachuca History Program under "Masters of the Intelligence Art" at: See also, Jacob R. Perkins, Trails, Rails and the War: The Life of General Grenville M. Dodge (Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929).

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