Culture and Components

Office of the DCI/DCIA

Inspector General

Materials presented in chronological order.

Kaiser, Frederick M. "The Watchers' Watchdog: The CIA Inspector General." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 55-75.

For a critique of the factual basis and conclusions of this article, see Breckinridge, "CIA's Inspector General...," IJI&C 3.3:419-424.

Breckinridge, Scott D. "CIA's Inspector General -- The DCI's Independent Eye: Another View." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 3 (Fall 1989): 419-424.

This article takes issue with Kaiser, "The Watchers' Watchdog...," IJI&C 3.1:55-75, noting that the tenor of Kaiser's article is "the CIA IG function has been ineffective.... This was the apparent basis for proposals to change the operation. A variety of legislative proposals were discussed.... I take exception with the premises Mr. Kaiser offers in support of the proposals, on the basis that they are badly grounded factually." This amounts to an effort to "use misrepresentation as a basis for extending congressional involvement into detailed internal management of the Executive."

Clark comment: I served on the Inspector General Staff in the mid-1980s. My experience in that timeframe has produced a view of the IG function that is much closer to that of Breckinridge than Kaiser. However, neither Breckinridge (whose tenure with the Inspector General predates mine) nor I have current, first-hand experience in that arena. Hints that have made their way into public view from the lengthy tenure of Fred Hitz, the CIA's first statutory IG, suggest significant changes in a number of ways in that function.

Snider, L. Britt. "Creating a Statutory Inspector General at the CIA." Studies in Intelligence 10 (Winter-Spring 2001): 15-21. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/winter_spring01/article02.pdf]

The author worked on this legislation while SSCI General Counsel. Nine years later, he became the second person appointed to the post. Here, he takes the reader through the legislative process that led to including the statutory IG provisions in the 1990 Intelligence Authorization Act.

Wines, Michael. "Independent Watchdog Takes Post at C.I.A." New York Times, 30 Nov. 1990. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Frederick P. Hitz, a former CIA "undercover officer," began work on 29 November 1990 as the CIA's "first independent inspector general." Hitz will report to DCI William H. Webster, but "can be removed from his job only by the President."

Weiner, Tim. "In Search of the C.I.A.'s Bad Apples: As Inspector General, Fred Hitz's Job Is to Spy on the Spies." New York Times, 30 Jul. 1995, 12 (N).

The CIA's Inspector General gets everything "from espionage misconduct to expense-account fudging." With DCI Deutch's arrival, "Hitz was the only senior official who kept his job." Cases mentioned include Ames, Guatemala, and Janine Brookner. Quotes by Hitz include a seemingly gratuitous slam at IG's office before his arrival. Weiner gives the number of IG "investigators" as 123.

Weller, Geoffrey R. "Comparing Western Inspectors General of Intelligence and Security." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 4 (Winter 1996-1997): 383-406.

Statutory Inspectors General and or similar have been created in the Western democracies over the past 15 years as part of an "overall increase in the degree of oversight accorded intelligence agencies.... The Inspectors General have generally built up good reputations for their largely well done ... work." But "the IGs have not always been able to anticipate problems and give early warning."

Weiner, Tim. "Veteran C.I.A. Official Quits, But Will Finish Investigations." New York Times, 3 Oct. 1997, A9 (N).

Fred Hitz, who has held the job since October 1990, will leave the Inspector General's job for a teaching position at Princeton University.

Pincus, Walter. "Independence of CIA Nominee Questioned: Inspector General-Designate Snider Is Friend, Colleague of Agency Director Tenet." Washington Post, 12 Jul. 1998, A8.

"Several members of the Senate's Select Committee on Intelligence have questioned whether CIA Inspector General-designate Britt Snider could, if confirmed, maintain his independence from CIA Director George J. Tenet, who is a close friend."

Shane, Scott, and Mark Mazzetti. "Moves Signal Tighter Secrecy Within C.I.A." New York Times, 24 Apr. 2006. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Intelligence officials with knowledge of the investigation said on 23 April 2006 that the CIA's "crackdown on leaks ... that led to the dismissal of a veteran intelligence officer last week included a highly unusual polygraph examination for the agency's independent watchdog, Inspector General John L. Helgerson."

Mazzetti, Mark, and Scott Shane. "Watchdog of C.I.A. Is Subject of C.I.A. Inquiry." New York Times, 11 Oct. 2007. [http://www.nytimes.com]

CIA Director Gen. Michael V. Hayden "has ordered an unusual internal inquiry into the work of the agency's inspector general, whose aggressive investigations of the C.I.A.'s detention and interrogation programs and other matters have created resentment among agency operatives." Current and former officials speaking on condition of anonymity "said the inquiry was being overseen by Robert L. Deitz, a trusted aide to the C.I.A. director and a lawyer who served as general counsel at the National Security Agency when General Hayden ran it. Michael Morrell, the agency's associate deputy director, is another member of the group, officials said."

Shane, Scott, and Mark Mazzetti. "Lawmakers Raise Concerns Over Call for Investigation of C.I.A. Watchdog's Work." New York Times, 13 Oct. 2007. [http://www.nytimes.com]

On 12 October 2007, Sen. Christopher S. Bond (R-MO), "[t]he top Republican on the Senate Intelligence Committee[,] joined Democrats ... in expressing strong concern about an unusual inquiry into the work" of CIA Inspector General John L. Helgerson, "saying the review could undermine Mr. Helgerson's role as independent watchdog."

Walter Pincus, "Lawmakers Criticize CIA Director's Review Order," Washington Post, 13 Oct. 2007, A3, reports that HPSCI Chairman Silvestre Reyes (D-TX) "said in a statement ... that the review of the agency's inspector general ... is 'troubling' because of its possible impact on the official's independence, 'which Congress established and will very aggressively preserve.'"

Mazzetti, Mark. "C.I.A. Tells of Changes for Its Internal Inquiries." New York Times, 2 Feb. 2008. [http://www.nytimes.com]

In a message to employees on 31 January 2008, CIA Director Gen. Michael V. Hayden announced that Inspector General John L. Helgerson "has agreed to a series of changes in the way the office conducts its investigations of the agency's practices." Among the changes are "new procedures to allow agency officers to lodge complaints against the inspector general's office." The changes follow an internal review begun in April 2007 and led by Hayden aide Robert L. Deitz. In addition to an ombudsman in the inspector general's office, "a new position of quality control officer is being established ... to attest, as General Hayden put it, 'that reports include all exculpatory and relevant mitigating information.'" See also, Joby Warrick, "CIA Sets Changes To IG's Oversight, Adds Ombudsman." Washington Post, 2 Feb. 2008, A3.

Kamen, Al. "In the Loop: Leaving Langley." Washington Post, 19 Feb. 2009, A13. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

CIA Inspector General John L. Helgerson announced on 18 February 2009 that "he will retire from the federal government in 30 days."

Dozier, Kimberly. "New Inspector General Finally Watching CIA." Associated Press, 7 Oct. 2010. [http://www.ap.org]

The CIA "says new Inspector General David Buckley started work this week, filling a post that had been empty for a year and a half.... Buckley, a former Air Force special agent, served previously on the House intelligence committee, the Senate investigations subcommittee and inspector general offices at Treasury and the Pentagon."

Hosenball, Mark. "CIA Says Its Inspector General Is Resigning at End of Month." Reuters via http://newsdaily.com, 5 Jan. 2015.

In a statement on 5 January 2015, the CIA said "CIA inspector general David Buckley ... is resigning effective Jan. 31" Buckley "has served as the agency's internal watchdog for more than four years." He is leaving "to 'pursue an opportunity in the private sector.'" See also, Dustin Volz, "The CIA's Watchdog Is Resigning After Revealing That Spies Hacked the Senate," National Journal, 5 Jan. 2015.

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