Culture and Components

Office of the DCI/DCIA

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Burkhalter, Edward A., Jr. "The Role of the Intelligence Community (IC) Staff." Signal 39 (Sep. 1984): 33-35. [Petersen]

DeYoung, Karen, and Greg Miller. "CIA's Deputy Director to Be Replaced with White House Lawyer." Washington Post, 12 Jun. 2013. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

CIA Director John O. Brennan announced on 12 June 2013 that CIA Deputy Director Michael Morell will retire and be replaced by Avril D. Haines, who "has served for three years as President Obama's deputy counsel in charge of national security issues and as legal adviser to the National Security Council." Haines will be the first woman to the CIA's No. 2 job. "The job of deputy CIA director is a presidential appointment that does not require Senate confirmation." See also, Daniel Klaidman, "The Least Likely Spy," The Daily Beast, 26 Jun. 2013.

DeYoung, Karen, and Greg Miller. "CIA's No. 2 Tapped To Be Deputy National Security Adviser." Washington Post, 18 Dec. 2014. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to administration officials on 18 December 2014, Avril D. Haines will become deputy national security adviser, "returning to the White House just 18 months after she left to be ... second in command" at the CIA. "Haines will succeed Antony Blinken, confirmed by the Senate this week as deputy secretary of state." Haines had previously been "deputy White House legal counsel and counsel to the National Security Council." Candisates to replace Haines "could include Glenn Gaffney, head of the agency's science and technology directorate, and Michael Vickers, a former CIA officer serving as the top intelligence official at the Pentagon."

Haines, Gerald K. "The CIA's Own Effort to Understand and Document Its Past: A Brief History of the CIA History Program, 1950-1995." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 201-223.

Clark comment: Individuals with limited or narrow experience in the federal bureaucracy often make silly errors of emphasis in their comments on government activities. Haines stumbles in this way in what is overall a useful survey of the ups and downs of the CIA's effort to record its own history. It is not that he has gotten his facts wrong, but, rather, that he deploys them in ways that just miss the mark. His naivete shows in his first 10 words with a reference to "the vast CIA bureaucracy." As federal bureaucracies go, the CIA does not even qualify as "large," much less "vast." In addition, the author too often misjudges the motives of the Agency's top decision makers and has cast his net so narrowly that he does not even mention the name of Walter Pforzheimer.

Leggett, Robert E. "The DCI's Center for the Study of Intelligence: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World Environment." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 1/2 (1996): 47-51.

The author discusses organization, activities, and challenges of the Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI). Leggett heads the CSI's Community Coordination Group, which oversees and coordinates the Community's historical declassification effort.

Miller, Greg. "John Rizzo: The Most Influential Career Lawyer in CIA History." Los Angeles Times, 29 Jun. 2009. [http://www.latimes.com]

"The acting general counsel at the CIA, Rizzo has guided generations of agency leaders on the legal contours of clandestine operations and the often-ensuing investigations. At CIA headquarters, he is known for his eye-watering wardrobe -- with ties, cuff links and suspenders colored like scoops of sherbet. His legal approach, however, always accommodated shades of gray, earning him a reputation among spies as an ally who understood the murky morality of what they do. When he retires this summer, Rizzo will go out as the most influential career lawyer in CIA history, having risen to the top of the agency's legal ranks while leaving his mark on classified programs from proxy wars in Central America to Predator strikes in Pakistan."

Clark comment: Senate questions about John Rizzo's role in the approval of the CIA's interrogation methods prevented him from formally being named CIA general counsel, although he has acted in that capacity for at least 5 years. This article says he is retiring this summer; I wish him a pleasant retirement -- for all his unconventioanality, John has served his country well.

See Joby Warrick, "Senate Intelligence Panel Seeks CIA Nominee's Withdrawal," Washington Post, 13 Sep. 2007, A11; and Joby Warrick, "Nominee Withdraws Bid for Key CIA Post," Washington Post, 26 Sep. 2007, A12.

Miller, Greg. "Senate Confirms Caroline Krass as CIA General Counsel." Washington Post, 13 Mar. 2014. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 13 March 2014, the Senate "voted to confirm Caroline Krass as CIA general counsel.... Krass, a former senior Justice Department official, replaces acting General Counsel Robert Eatinger."

Miller, Greg, and Julie Tate. "CIA Probes Publication Review Board over Allegations of Selective Censorship." Washington Post, 31 May 2012. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to U.S. officials, the CIA "has begun an internal investigation" of its Publications Review Board. The question is "whether a process designed to screen books by former employees and protect national security secrets is being used in part to censor agency critics." In other words, are some redactions politically motivated?

Radsan, A. John. "Sed Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: The CIA’s Office of General Counsel?" Journal of National Security Law and Policy 2 (2008): 201-255. [http://www.mcgeorge.edu/Documents/publications/jnslp/01_Radsan Master 09_11_08.pdf]

"Throughout American history, Presidents have been tempted by Commander-in-Chief powers and by executive authority to keep information classified.... If Presidents have insisted on the utmost secrecy, spymasters have accommodated them, cutting out Vice Presidents, cabinet secretaries, and ambassadors. The spymasters have also cut out other intelligence officers.... The harsh reality in intelligence activities is that cutting out a few lawyers is just as easy, even easier....

"Some Presidents, like President Carter, may have strictly adhered to the letter of the law on intelligence activities. Some Presidents, like President Reagan, may have strayed. Some CIA General Counsels have followed their President's course; some have strayed. Even when Presidents and General Counsels share similar courses, they are not always in lock-step, because too many layers of executive authority ... often stand between them. Yet the President and the General Counsel have an effect on each other, even if that effect is indirect and not easily measured....

"The CIA's Office of General Counsel, when it lives up to its promise, serves as one guard over the activities of the CIA. The lawyers there are not perfect, but ... they ... [constitute] some sort of guard over the guardians."

Rizzo, John. "The CIA-Congress War." Defining Ideas, 30 Mar. 2012. [http://www.hoover.org/publications/defining-ideas/article/112491]

Between 1976 and 2009, Rizzo rose through the CIA lawyer ranks to be Acting General Counsel. Here, he offers his "personal perspective" on why the relations between the Congress and the CIA "have gone inexorably downhill over the past three-plus decades." The primary reason for this is: "A failure to communicate."

Rizzo, John. Company Man: Thirty Years of Controversy and Crisis in the CIA. New York: Scribner, 2014.

Campbell, CIRA Quarterly 34.1 (Spring 2014), notes that the author "occupied a front row seat as a participant in and witness to the many political, legal, policy, and operational complexities inherent to the planning, coordination, approval, and execution of covert action.... Rizzo has produced a book full of unique insights and thoughtful reflection, with a good dose of humor along the way."

To Peake, Studies 58.2 (Jun. 2014), and Intelligencer 20.3 (Spring-Summer 2014), the author "provides a forthright account of his career's progress and along the way makes clear the contributions lawyers make. In a matter-of-fact writing style that shuns self-promotion, Rizzo describes one challenging episode after another that raised unprecedented legal issues.... He gives a detailed account of his role in the origins and implementation of the interrogation program." This book makes "clear why Rizzo acquired a reputation for competence and intellectual honesty."

Kaplan, New York Times, 3 Jan. 2014, is basically downbeat about these memoirs. He seems to want Rizzo to have said more negative things about the CIA, its actions, and the people he worked with and for: "[T]he book suffers from the lack not merely of a critical perspective ... but of any perspective whatever." Admittedly, there are a few "tidbits" here, but there should have been more. And the author "shies away from substance on many policy matters.... His chief failing here is that he took part in so much but tells us so little."

For Temple-Raston, Washington Post, 10 Jan. 2014, "[f]ew books have this scope or insider perspective on the CIA.... The book is by turns withholding and matter-of-fact, aggrieved and smug, and in the end could be read in one of two ways: as the diary of a legal enabler for the agency or as an atlas to navigate the dark, murky morality that governs the business of intelligence." Chapman, IJI&C 27.4 (Winter 2014), calls Rizzo's "an insider's explanation of many important events.... But too many questions remain as to how certain, often destructive, actions were taken without proper judgment being exercised at numerous points in the decision channel."

[Smith, Jeffrey H.] "An Interview with Former CIA General Counsel Jeffrey H. Smith." National Security Law Report 18, no. 6 (Oct. 1996): 1, 4-7.

Chairman of the ABA's Standing Committee on Law and National Security, Paul Schott Stevens, interviews Jeffrey H. Smith, "shortly after he returned to private law practice."

United Press International. "Hayden Names New Director for Intelligence." 13 Mar. 2008. [http://www.upi.com]

According to a CIA report, DCIA Mike Hayden has announced that "current Associate Deputy Director Michael Morell will succeed John Kringen as the agency's director for intelligence at the beginning of May.... Officials say Kringen has been moved to a senior intelligence community post. Current CIA Director for Support Scott White will succeed Morell as associate deputy director.

Warrick, Joby. "Senate Intelligence Panel Seeks CIA Nominee's Withdrawal." Washington Post, 13 Sep. 2007, A11. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

SSCI members "have requested the withdrawal of the Bush administration's choice for CIA general counsel, acknowledging that John Rizzo's nomination has stalled because of concerns about his views on the treatment of terrorism suspects.... Rizzo has served with the CIA since 1976 and acted as interim general counsel from 2001 to 2002 and from August 2004 to the present."

Joby Warrick, "Nominee Withdraws Bid for Key CIA Post," Washington Post, 26 Sep. 2007, A12, reports that on 25 September 2007, John A. Rizzo withdrew his candidacy for the position of CIA general counsel. His nomination had encountered "opposition from Democrats who questioned his views on the agency's methods of interrogating terrorism suspects." Clark comment: This is a shame, as Rizzo has spent his career preparing for this job (and actually holding it as acting general counsel since 2004). There are few (if any) individuals more capable. John, you have served long and well; you have my sympathy for a raw deal.

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