See also materials on broad postwar science and technology issues.
Materials relevant to the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, a component of the Directorate of Science and Technology from the 1970s to 2005, are contained in a separate "FBIS" file.
Pearse, Ralph S. "What Size Is It?" Studies in Intelligence 15, no. 1 (Winter 1971): 53-65.
"The evolution of photogrammetry within CIA."
Richelson, Jeffrey T. "From JAM SESSION to the PFIAB: Albert Wheelon and U.S. Intelligence." Intelligencer 20, no. 2 (Fall-Winter 2013): 23-31.
Albert D. "Bud" Wheelon died on 27 September 2013. Here, the author outlines Wheelon's role in the development of and direction of the CIA's DS&T.
Richelson, Jeffrey T. "The Wizards of Langley: The CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 82-103.
Richelson traces the "history" of the Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T) from Richard Bissell's Development Projects Staff, to the formation of the Directorate of Research in 1962, to the establishment of the DS&T under Albert (Bud) Wheelon in 1963, to the present day. He touches on the organization's evolution, collection systems development, collection operations, analysis and processing, and research and development. He suggests that the Directorate's role is changing, that its influence is on the wane, and that the DS&T's future may be in "scientific breakthroughs that can be applied to intelligence collection and analysis performed by other organizations."
The importance of Donald E. Welzenbach's groundbreaking article to understanding the early history of the DS&T, "Science and Technology: Origins of a Directorate," Studies in Intelligence 30, no. 2 (Summer 1986), 13-26, is illustrated by Richelson's numerous references to it (17 of the first 28 footnotes).
Richelson, Jeffrey T. The Wizards of Langley: Inside the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.
Clark comment: This book is enormously informative about a major player in the development of U.S. intelligence from the 1960s into the 1990s. It is packed with details about the DS&T's many technical accomplishments (and some failures and misdirections), and it accurately portrays the long-standing and eventually losing bureaucratic struggle with the Defense Department for primacy in the development and operation of space-based reconnaissance. Although the DS&T was pushed organizationally to the sidelines in the 1990s, the manner in which it responded to President Eisenhower's trust and foresight in placing the development of CORONA (and follow-on systems) with the CIA is marvelously retold by the author. Although he certainly has not played down the bureaucratic and personal animosities involved over the years, Richelson either did not pick up or decided not to focus on the very real antagonisms between senior DS&T and NSA managers, which by the mid-1980s had a distinctly personal flavor. The Wizards of Langley is not light reading, but repays the effort with a wealth of information about and insight into a critical aspect of America's intelligence arsenal.
Although displeased by the author's excessive use of acronyms, Seamon, Proceedings 128.1 (Jan. 2002), still finds this to be "a thoroughly researched tale of political infighting, personal animosities, and interservice and interagency bickering." Still, the DS&T turned out many "impressive successes," and "[t]he variety of its failures also testifies to its unfettered energy."
Mazzafro, I&NS 17.3, also refers to Richelson's "acronym-laden story," but adds that this is "a well-documented though antiseptic narrative of Cold War history." The work provides "a compact history of how technology effected and affected the practice of intelligence in the last 50 years of the twentieth century, that serious students of both technology and intelligence will want to be familiar with." For Bath, NIPQ 18.2/3, this "book is timely, well organized, and shows impeccable scholarship." However, the reviewer found the author's "coverage of the bureaucratic history of CIA's Directorate of Science & Technology" to be somewhat heavy on detail.
Richelson, Jeffrey T., ed. The CIA and Signals Intelligence. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 506. 20 Mar. 2015, at: http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB506/.
"Formerly Top-Secret Multi-Volume History Details Spy Agency's Conflicts with NSA and Military over SIGINT Role. Additional Declassified Documents Describe CIA Domestic and Foreign SIGINT Activity. CIA Role Often Put It in Direct Competition with NSA, but Recent Cooperation Made Possible Controversial Exploits Uncovered by Edward Snowden."
Robinson, Clarence A., Jr. "Intelligence Agency Adjusts as Mission Possible Unfolds." Signal, Oct. 1998, 17-19. [http://www.us.net/signal/Archive/Oct98/intel-oct.html]
The CIA's advanced analytic tools office was created in the Directorate of Science and Technology in 1997. The head of the 100-person office is Susan M. Gordon. She describes the office's mission as "bringing the power of information technology advances to bear on its basic analytical functions. The use of advanced analytical tools dovetails with a new strategic agency direction. This imperative calls for much closer ties with customers, accelerating information gathering and processing, handling larger volumes of data more efficiently and expediting product delivery."
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Office of Scientific Intelligence: The Original Wizards of Langley, at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/historical-collection-publications/the-original-wizards-of-langley/index.html.
OSI "was created in 1949 ... by expanding the Scientific Intelligence Branch of the Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE) and combining it with the Nuclear Energy Group of the Office of Special Operations (OSO)." In 1980, "it was merged with the Office of Weapons Intelligence (OWI) ... to form the Office of Scientific and Weapons Research."
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Public Affairs Staff. "Press Release: CIA Director Porter J. Goss Names New Deputy Director for Science and Technology." 12 Aug. 2005. [https://www.cia.gov]
On 12 August 2005, "CIA Director Porter J. Goss announced the selection of Stephanie L. O'Sullivan as Deputy Director for Science and Technology. O'Sullivan had served as Associate Deputy Director for Science and Technology since June 2003."
Wallace, Robert, and H. Keith Melton, with Henry R. Schlesinger. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs From Communism to Al-Qaeda. New York: Dutton, 2008.
Clark comment: The combination of the former director of the CIA's Office of Technical Service (OTS) and the holder of what is probably the best private collection of "spy gadgets" is a marriage made in book-producing heaven. This work makes for fascinating reading. Even if the reader may have heard of or even encountered some of the technical and operational marvels (or even the things that did not quite work) discussed in Spycraft, it is unlikely that many individuals know the associated back story of their creation. I won't argue that the details included in this book always make for easy reading, but the story telling does encourage the reader to forge on since something even more interesting is likely to appear on the next page.
Peake, Studies 52.2 (Jun. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), comments that this "[w]ell documented and thoroughly illustrated" book "is a long overdue tribute to an unsung group of 'techies' and all who support them in achieving amazing technical breakthroughs under difficult conditions." West, IJI&C 23.2 (Summer 2010), offers solid praise for this work. He calls it an "important publication" that is "[m]eticulously document[ed]." The authors cover "their subject comprehensively, with an informational gem to be found on every page." Spycraft is "an altogether unique contribution" that is simultaneously "fascinating" and educational."
For Joseff, CIRA Newsletter 33.2 (Summer 2008), "this is the most comprehensive, detailed, and revealing book written to date about the role of [TSS/TSD/]OTS in providing worldwide operational support to HUMINT collection.... The whole gamut of the traditional OTS disciplines are covered in depth." It is "a definitive history of technical support to clandestine operations." Brady, I&NS 26.2&3 (Apr.-Jun. 2011), finds the book to be "well written," "thoroughly researched," and "a significent addition to the historiography of science and technology."
Welzenbach, Donald E. "Science and Technology: Origins of a Directorate." Studies in Intelligence 30, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 13-26; and Studies in Intelligence 56, no. 3 (Sep. 2012): 65-78
The importance of this groundbreaking article to understanding the early history of the DS&T is illustrated by the numerous references to it (17 of the first 28 footnotes) in Jeffrey T. Richelson, "The Wizards of Langley: The CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology," Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1997), 82-103.
Wheelon, Albert D. "And the Truth Shall Keep You Free: Recollections by the First Deputy Director of Science and Technology." Studies in Intelligence 39, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 73-78.
Return to Culture & Components Table of Contents