Summing Up the 1990s

Jones, Christopher M. "The CIA Under Clinton: Continuity and Change." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 14, no. 4 (Winter 2001-2002): 503-528.

This article by a political science professor, working solely from publicly available materials, focuses on the CIA's mission, structure, and personnel in an effort "to uncover how the CIA has responded organizationally to its internal problems and new external environment" during the Clinton years. While some of the supporting analysis can be nit-picked, the result is a commendable look at what is understood of the organizational dynamic at work in the CIA in the 1990s.

Although the CIA saw certain of its responsibilities "either challenged or lost completely" (e.g., by the creation of the Defense HUMINT Service and the move of the functions of the National Photographic Interpretation Center to the Defense Department's new National Imagery and Mapping Agency), its work also has "become broader and more complicated." The author concludes that "[w]hile the CIA did not experience sweeping change during the Clinton era, a process of bureaucratic adapation generated by forces within and outside the Agency altered several important aspects of its mission, structure, and personnel."

Knott, Stephen F. "The Great Republican Transformation on Oversight." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 49-63.

Knott develops the idea of "the abandonment by congressional Republicans of the prnciple of executive control of the nation's intelligence community.... [S]ince taking control of Congress in January 1995, Republican-dominated intelligence committees have strengthened the new oversight regime and displayed an aversion to executive secrecy that would make Frank Church proud....

"The [Anthony] Lake affair demonstrated in bold relief that the traditional Republican defense of the idea that the President should have his own national security 'team' had been abandoned by the party." And with regard to Newt Gingrich's "Iraq Liberation Act of 1998," "[i]n forcing the President to accept congressionally sponsored covert initiatives..., the Republicans have expanded the role of Congress in intelligence oversight to new, ill-defined, and dangerous levels."

McCarthy, Gregory C. "GOP Oversight of Intelligence in the Clinton Era." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 26-51.

"While varying greatly by issue and period, both select committees performed commendably" during the Clinton years. "Although comity would generally characterize the [SSCI's] approach, a notable exception is ... [t]he nomination of Anthony Lake" to be DCI. The "nadir of [HPSCI's] effectiveness" was the Torricelli case, which "was a disaster" for the committee. Overall, however, "the committees allowed Congress to play a major and mostly positive role in oversight."

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