The 1950s


E - K

Felix, Christopher [James McCarger]. "The 'Modern Spy' Extends His Arena." New York Times Magazine, 8 Jun. 1953, 24 ff. [Petersen]

Finn, Peter, and Petra Couvée.

1. "During Cold War, CIA Used 'Doctor Zhivago' as a Tool to Undermine Soviet Union." Washington Post, 5 Apr. 2014. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"[M]ore than 130 newly declassified CIA documents ... detail the agency's secret involvement in the printing of 'Doctor Zhivago' -- an audacious plan that helped deliver the book into the hands of Soviet citizens who later passed it friend to friend, allowing it to circulate in Moscow and other cities in the Eastern Bloc. The book's publication and, later, the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Literature to Pasternak triggered one of the great cultural storms of the Cold War.... The CIA's role -- with its publication of a hardcover Russian-language edition printed in the Netherlands and a miniature, paperback edition printed at CIA headquarters -- has long been hidden."

See also, Celia Mansfield, "Using Literature to Lift the Iron Curtain: Declassified CIA Documents Reveal Agency's Role in Publishing the Russian Language Version of Doctor Zhivago," Intelligencer 20, no. 3 (Spring-Summer 2014): 23-28.

2. The Zhivago Affair: The Kremlin, the CIA, and the Battle Over a Forbidden Book. New York: Pantheon, 2014.

Peake, Studies 58.4 (Dec. 2014), declares that "The Zhivago Affair is a great story, wonderfully told." For Neal, Studies 59.2 (Jun. 2015), "[i]n addition to its historical significance of shedding light on a relatively unknown Cold War intelligence effort, The Zhivago Affair is also an excellent story with a wide cast of characters acting in front of a global backdrop."

3. The declassified CIA documents on the publication of Doctor Zhivago can be accessed online at: http://www.foia.cia.gov/collection/doctor-zhivago.

Fischer, Benjamin B. "Markus Wolf and the CIA Mole." Center for the Study of Intelligence Bulletin 10 (Winter 2000): 8-9.

Fischer tells the story of the work of the CIA's penetration agent in East German intelligence (then called the Institute for Economic Research) from 1950 to 1953. When Gotthold Krauss finally defected to the West, he brought with him "a treasure trove of counterintelligence information."

Fry, Michael Graham. "The Uses of Intelligence: The United Nations Confronts the United States in the Lebanon Crisis, 1958." Intelligence and National Security 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1995): 59-91.

Fry argues that UN Secretary General Hammarskjold achieved considerable success in 1958. This success was in no small part due to the "reach and accuracy" of the intelligence gathered through the United Nations Observer Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL), in competition with the CIA.

Garthoff, Raymond L. "Intelligence Aspects of Early Cold War Summitry (1959-60)." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 1-22.

From abstract: "The author recounts, on the basis of personal experience as the responsible CIA officer and using previously classified documentation, intelligence aspects of summit level visits of Vice President Richard Nixon to the Soviet Union and Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev to the United States in 1959, and the planned but aborted visit of President Dwight Eisenhower to the Soviet Union in 1960."

Goldstein, Warren. William Sloane Coffin Jr.: A Holy Impatience. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.

Rossinow, H-1960s, H-Net Reviews (Jul. 2006) [http://www.h-net.org], notes that Coffin was employed by the CIA in its early years. "The particular uses ... made of him reflected both his language abilities and his remarkable social skills." He "developed extensive contacts with 'White Russian' communities in France and elsewhere, exiles from the Soviet regime, and as a CIA employee he trained anti-Soviet agents who were parachuted into the Soviet Union (it failed badly; the men were caught)."

Greenberg, Harold M. "Research Note: The Doolittle Commission of 1954." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 4 (Dec. 2005): 687-694.

This is an effort to resurrect the Doolittle Commission's review of covert action from the dustbin of history, to which it has been consigned by many historians. The main point is that "the secrecy of its progress and the narrow dissemination of its report cast doubt that the Doolittle Commission was calculated simply to outmaneuver Congress."

Hansen, Peer Henrik. "'Upstairs and Downstairs' -- The Forgotten CIA Operations in Copenhagen." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 685-701.

Outlines the activities of "The Firm," an anticommunist group formed by former Resistance fighters in Denmark in the aftermath of World War II. From 1952 to 1959, the group maintained an "eavesdropping operation" in the apartment of the deputy chairman of the Danish Communist Party. The take was shared with the CIA.

Helgerson, John. "Truman and Eisenhower: Launching the Process." Studies in Intelligence 38, no. 5 (1995): 65-77.

DCI Smith provided weekly briefings to President Truman. There was tension between Truman and Eisenhower over the President's invitation to the candidates to meet with him and the Cabinet for briefing on foreign affairs. Eisenhower accepted pre-election briefings from CIA, which began on 30 August 1952; Smith took over the briefing of the President-elect in November. Dulles provided weekly briefings at the NSC meeting, chaired by Eisenhower; at times, a follow-on meeting between the President, Dulles, and a staff aide would be held. Eisenhower authorized intelligence briefings of Stevenson in the 1956 campaign.

Holober, Frank. Raiders of the China Coast: CIA Covert Operations during the Korean War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1999.

Clark comment: The author, who served with Western Enterprises Incorporated (WEI) on Quemoy in 1951-1952, details the activities of CIA-sponsored anti-Communist guerrillas along China's southeastern coast in the early 1950s. Except for an annoying tendency to use made up conversations from the past to advance some of his story, Holober provides a good read. This reader even guffawed several times. Ever the instructor, Holober provides little snippets of Chinese along the way. Nevertheless, you need to be interested in learning about this little-known covert action to get full enjoyment from this book.

Sulc, CIRA Newsletter 23.2, comments that Raiders of the China Coast "should be greeted with great interest by historians.... Holober has done a very good job" in his writing about "the forgotten war within the 'forgotten war.'" Similarly, Copper, IJI&C 13.3, says that "Holober is to be credited for telling a story that needed to be told." For Jonkers, AFIO WIN 35-99 (3 Sep. 1999), this book "can be read as a rousing story or as history, celebrating an exceptional cast of American characters involved in these clandestine operations.... Highly recommended."

Hunt, Linda. "Cold Warrior." Back Channels 1, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 10-11.

This article profiles Charles Cabell, DDCI 1953-1962, and his connections with the plot to assassinate Castro and the Bay of Pigs. The author also discusses Garrison's effort to connect Cabell to the JFK assassination.

Johnson, Ian. A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, CIA, and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the West. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010.

Fischer, IJI&C 24, no. 2 (Summer 2011), opines that the author's "thesis that the blowback from Afghanistan began in Munich thirty years earlier is interesting but undocumented."

Kross, Peter. "The CIA Mounted an Ambitious Tunnel-digging Operation in 1954 to Tap into Russian Communications Lines Beneath Berlin." Military Heritage 14, no. 6 (2013): 12-15.

A brief and general retelling of the story of the Berlin Tunnel.

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