A - J

Averbeck, Ryan, et. al. "The Role of Counterintelligence Professionals in Research and Technology Protection." National Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (2009): 133-146.

"While the support that CI provides to RTP [Research and Technology Protection] programs is substantial, issues that hinder a collective ability to thwart the loss of research and technolgies remain.... [E]ach agency and department (especially within DoD) implements and executes RTP activities in an independent manner."

Batvinis, Raymond J. The Origins of FBI Counterintelligence. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2007.

From publisher: The author is a former FBI special agent . He covers "the crucial period before Pearl Harbor when the Bureau's powers secretly expanded to face the developing international emergency." Batvinis "examines the FBI's emerging new roles during the two decades leading up to America's entry into World War II to show how it cooperated and competed with other federal agencies." Peake, Studies 51.3 (2007), concludes that "[f]or those interested in how the FBI crafted its niche in the American national security program," this book "is the place to start."

Boak, David G. "The Evolution of Signals Security as a Counterintelligence Discipline." Intelligencer 15, no. 3 (Summer/Fall 2007): 53-59.

Bowers, Faye. "U.S. Unready for Rising Threat of 'Moles': A Recent Report on U.S. Intelligence Harshly Critiqued Counter-Spy Efforts." Christian Science Monitor, 8 Apr. 2005, 1.

CNN. "CIA Spy Hunter Talks to CNN about Notorious Turncoats." 29 May 2000. []

In an interview with CNN National Security Correspondent David Ensor, Richard Haver, former executive director of the CIA's Community Management Staff, "talks about his experiences with ... John Anthony Walker; Aldrich Ames,... and Jonathan Pollard." (Includes video clips of interview.)

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Passing the Torch." Mar. 2000. [http://www.]

Michael J. Waguespack, Director of the National Counterintelligence Center since its establishment in 1994, returned to the FBI in late January 2000. He will serve as Deputy Assistant Director for Counterintelligence Operations and Support, National Security Division, FBI Headquarters. Robert C. Thompson, on detail at the NACIC from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service and previously Waguespack's deputy, will serve as Acting Director until a new Director is named.

Ehrman, John. "What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Counterintelligence?" Studies in Intelligence 53, no. 2 (Jun. 2009): 5-20. []

The author describes this interesting article as "an effort to begin developing a theory of counterintelligence." It is not meant to be "a fully formed theory," but rather a first step "toward building one by considering what a theory would need to cover."

French, Geoffrey S., and Jin Kim. "Acknowledging the Revolution: The Urgent Need for Cyber Counterintelligence." National Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (2009): 71-90.

"The DNI should bring additional resources to bear on CI, use them as a coordinating and bridging mechanism to ensure that the various CI elements are sufficiently effective tio identify the cyber threat and that they can work together to contribute to a coherent response."

Gertz, Bill. "Counterintelligence Posts Vacant." Washington Times, 10 Feb. 2006. []

According to U.S. intelligence officials, the top positions at government CI agencies "are empty due to resignations and retirements amid a dispute over the role" of CI. Michelle Van Cleave "resigned last month after the office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX), which she headed, was made part" of the new ODNI.  At the FBI, CIA and Pentagon, senior CI "positions are held by acting officials." At the White House, the NSC CI "staff position has been downgraded.... Intelligence officials said the failure to fill the top posts is a sign of bias against counterspying by senior intelligence officials under DNI John Negroponte and at other agencies."

Gertz, Bill. Enemies: How America's Foes Steal Our Vital Secrets -- and How We Let It Happen. New York: Crown, 2006.

It seems odd to Peake, Studies 51.2 (2007), that the author "treats cases in which [enemy] agents were caught or confessed -- presumed successes -- yet he argues that 'FBI is out of control' ([p.] 199) and American CI isn't doing anything right, largely because it takes too long to catch the culprits, a problem he blames on the lack of high-level attention. Like others before him, Gertz argues that more resources, better leadership, and proactive programs are needed."

Brooks, NIPQ 23.1 (Jan. 2007), notes that this book "deals with the rather consistent failures of U.S. counterintelligence." The author "points out the failures of the FBI to detect, their ineptitude in investigating, and their flawed prosecutions as evidence that the nation requires an MI-5 type professional counterintelligence service." West, IJI&C 20.4 (Winter 2007), finds that this work "is not so much a work of disclosure, but more a series of case histories." The author's "account of wholesale ineptitude and worse at the FBI's Hoover Building is written in racy journalese, and reads as if it had been downloaded off his newspaper's website."

For Goulden, Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007) and Washington Times, 12 Nov. 2006, "even someone who is reflexively friend[ly] towards intelligence and law enforcement agencies must feel appalled at Mr. Gertz's account of sweeping incompetence by the men and women who are paid good salaries to protect important secrets.... Not a pleasant read, to be sure, but a valuable one."

Gertz, Bill. "Ex-Official Reports Counterintelligence Is Weak." Washington Times, 30 Sep. 2008. []

In a report made public on 29 September 2008, former National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX) Michelle Van Cleave said that "U.S. government efforts to counter foreign spies remains fragmented and weak.... [T]he FBI, CIA and other federal counterspy units lack both a needed focus and strategy for thwarting the growing foreign intelligence threat."

Written for "the private Project on National Security Reform, a nonprofit and nonpartisan group," the report notes that while "the FBI is skilled at enforcing counterespionage and related laws," it is not 'organized, trained or equipped to collect or analyze intelligence on the extensive foreign intelligence presence in the United States beyond those personnel here under official or journalistic cover, or to develop or execute offensive operations to mislead, deny or otherwise exploit foreign intelligence activities against the United States.'"

Gertz, Bill. "Ex-Spy Hunter Drops Intelligence Post Bid." Washington Times, 31 Mar. 2006. []

Former CIA counterintelligence officer Paul Redmond "has withdrawn from consideration to become" national counterintelligence executive (NCIX). The post and the deputy position in NCIX "remain vacant following the resignations of Michelle Van Cleave in January and Ken deGraffenreid a month earlier. The office was recently placed under DNI John D. Negroponte as part of intelligence reform efforts, setting off a dispute over the role of counterintelligence."

Gertz, Bill. "Foreign Spy Activity Surges to Fill Technology Gap." Washington Times, 3 Jan. 2007. []

An annual report by the Defense Security Service's counterintelligence office, "Technology Collection Trends in the U.S. Defense Industry," asserts that "foreign spies are stepping up efforts to obtain secret U.S. technology through methods ranging from sexual entrapment to Internet hacking, with China and other Asian countries leading the targeting of U.S. defense contractors." The report noted that "the use of third countries to disguise collection will continue as a common tactic."

Godson, Roy. "Dirty Tricks or Trump Cards?" Society 38, no. 6 (Sep./Oct. 2001): 38-51.

Harber, Justin R. "Unconventional Spies: The Counterintelligence Threat from Non-State Actors." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 22, no. 2 (Summer 2009): 221-236.

Although they may lack the capabilities of state-level actors, non-state actors "pose a particularly unique, if not urgent, CI challenge because of their inherent difficulty as a collection target and their willingness to share information across organizational boundaries."

Hess, Pamela. "US Counterintel Chief to be Replaced." Associated Press, 26 Jun. 2009. []

In a message to employees on 26 June 2009, DNI Dennis Blair announced that "Joel Brenner, the national counterintelligence executive for the last three years," will leave his post on 4 July 2009. "No reason was given for Brenner's departure and his replacement has not yet been announced."

Jones, Jeffrey R., and Mark A. Thomas. "Cyber Espionage: What's the Big Deal?" National Intelligence Journal 1, no. 1 (2009): 91-107.

This article discusses "recent cyber espionage incidents; outline[s] a proposed methodology to define the operational impacts of cyber espionage; and highlight[s] the recent steps taken by the Amy Materiel Command (AMC) and the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASAALT), to identify, mitigate, and ultimately neutralize the advantages foreign entities gain bu exploiting U.S. digital information."

Jonkers, Roy K. [COL/USAF (Ret.)] "Presidential Decision Directive CI 21 Counterintelligence." American Intelligence Journal 20, nos. 1 & 2 (Winter 2000-2001): 41-42.

Provides the substance of the Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) entitled "U.S. Counterintelligence Effectiveness for the 21st Century," released by the White House on 5 January 2001.

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