L - Z

Lilley, James, with Jeffrey Lilley. China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage, and Diplomacy in Asia. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.

James R. Lilley died at the age of 81 on 12 November 2009. See John Pomfret, " U.S. Ambassador to China Served during Crackdown at Tiananmen Square," Washington Post, 14 Nov. 2009.

Nathan, Washington Post, 25 Apr. 2004, notes that "James Lilley served on the operations side of the CIA, working on China, from 1951-74. He then switched to analysis and diplomacy, serving as U.S. representative in Taipei in 1982-84 and ambassador in Beijing in 1989-91, among other posts."

To Peake, Studies 48.4 (2004), James Lilley's life is "a moving, exciting, and informative adventure." The book "is a pleasure to read and a valuable contribution to the literature of intelligence." For Pye, FA 83.3 (May-Jun. 2004), the author provides "the inside story of U.S. policymaking in a keen, clear-eyed manner." Rawnsley, I&NS 20.3 (Sep. 2005), comments that the author provides "a gripping description of American covert operations in Asia" and "a fascinating vista from which to view the evolution of America's China policy."

Halloran, Parameters 34.4 (Winter 2004-2005), finds that the author "strolls down memory lane in an account of his childhood in China.... He ranges over his education at Yale and his intelligence work in Japan, Hong Kong, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand, although without telling much about operations there." And he "recounts his close affiliation with George Bush the Elder." However, "[t]he cohesive thread woven through this well-written memoir ... is Lilley's association with China."

Lim, Benjamin Kang. "China Executes Two for Spying for Taiwan." Washington Post, 14 Sep. 1999, A23. []

"China has executed an army general and a colonel after they were found guilty of selling state secrets to Taiwan for at least $1.6 million, military sources said, describing the case as the biggest spying scandal in Communist China's 50-year history."

Lunev, Stanislav. "China's Intelligence Machine." Insight on the News, 17 Nov. 1997, 17-19.

ProQuest: The author "provides background information on Beijing's goals and methods" in its intelligence operations in the United States.

National Intelligence Council. Eds., John K. Allen, Jr., John Carver, and Tom Elmore. Intro., Robert L. Suettinger. Tracking the Dragon: National Intelligence Estimates on China During the Era of Mao, 1948-1976. Washington, DC: NIC 2004-05, Oct. 2004.

This hefty volume contains 37 formerly classified NIEs and SNIEs on China. The accompanying CD has an additional 34 such documents. Suettinger's "Introduction" to the collection provides excellent and concise context. The print version is also available on the NIC Public Web site at

Richelson, Jeffrey T. Foreign Intelligence Organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988.

Robinson, Edward A., with Ann Harrington. "China's Spies Target Corporate America." Fortune, 30 Mar. 1998.

The "scope and depth" of China's spying in the United States is "only beginning to be understood.... [O]ver the past several years Chinese-backed industrial spying has increased dramatically against U.S. business.... [T]he American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS), an association for corporate-security types, found that America business now sees China as its No. 1 foreign economic-espionage threat."

Safire, William. "I Remember Larry." New York Times, 2 Jan. 1997, A19.

Sawyer, Ralph D., with Mei-Chu Lee Sawyer. The Tao of Deception: Unorthodox Warfare in Historic and Modern China. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

Peake, Studies 51.4 (2007), notes that the author "acknowledges the use of deception in the West, but he contends it is not yet as integrated into military thinking and planning as it is in China." This book is not easy reading. However, "for those who are concerned about China's historic and contemporary approaches to intelligence and deception operations, it is worth the effort."

For Arpin, NWCR 61.1 (Winter 2008), the author "has produced an enlightening study of the beginnings and the evolution of deception in Chinese political and military history.... The book abounds with examples of how a little deception or unconventional application can have a great effect on outcomes.... This book reads well. A dynastic chronology helps place the events in historical (Chinese, if not world) context. However, maps would have greatly assisted understanding."

Bartholomees, Parameters 38.1 (Spring 2008), notes that "the book is really a study of the history of the Chinese concept of unorthodox warfare." Basically, the author "interprets the tao of deception as doing everything imaginable to put your enemy in the most disadvantageous position possible before fighting.... If Sawyer's book disappoints, it is in the comparative scarcity of its analysis of modern Chinese military thought. Less than 30 pages deal directly with the subject -- although there are scattered modern references throughout the book."

Sawyer, Ralph D. The Tao of Spycraft: Intelligence Theory and Practice in Traditional China. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

Cohen, FA 77.6 (Nov.-Dec. 1998), notes that this work consists of "substantial translations of and commentaries on classic Chinese texts ... on early Chinese history, espionage, covert action, theories of intelligence assessment, military intelligence, and divination." For Paschall, MHQ Review, Spring 1999, this work "is written in a professional and straightforward manner.... [I]t reveals early Chinese thinking about a vital craft that can save lives and extend a nation's reach and purpose."

Finding that "[t]his work is not without flaws," Arpin, NWCR 60.1 (Winter 2007), comments that it "assumes that the reader has a basic understanding of traditional Chinese history and culture; some sections may be hard going for the casual reader. Parts of the book are rather dry," reflecting "the extensive translations more than the author's style. But for serious students of China, intelligence tradecraft, or information operations, this book provides essential understanding of contemporary Chinese statecraft."

Schoenhals, Michael. Spying for the People: Mao's Secret Agents, 1949–1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013,

Peake, Studies 57.3 (Sep 2013), and Intelligencer 20.2 (Fall-Winter 2013), finds that the author "focuses on the purpose of domestic agents -- as provocateurs and collectors -- as well as the system's command structure, duties, technical capabilities, and historical context.... This is an extraordinarily fine work of historical scholarship on a topic about which little had been known." For Nathan, FA 93.3 (May-Jun. 2014), the focus in this work is on "the bureaucratic processes of recruiting, training, and running agents. The impact of the surveillance on society remains to be studied."

Wise, David, and Thomas B. Ross. The Espionage Establishment. New York: Random House, 1967. London: Jonathan Cape, 1968. New York: Bantam Books, 1968. [pb]

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