Barrett, Barrington M., Jr. "Information Warfare: China's Response to U.S. Technological Advantages." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 4 (Winter 2005-2006): 682-706.

"Chinese military strategists are working to develop Information Warfare concepts with a distinct national flavor."

Chase, Michael S., and James C. Mulvenon. "The Decommercialization of China's Ministry of State Security." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 4 (Winter 2002-2003): 481-495.

Working from a "grey-literature" internal divestiture after-action report, the authors track the process by which the MSS moved to shed its "smaller business infrastructure" following the 20 July 1998 Politburo order.

Gertz, Bill. "China Boosts Spy Presence in U.S., CIA, FBI Report." Washington Times, 9 Mar. 2000. []

According to a joint CIA and FBI report sent to Congress in January but released on 8 March 2000, "China's spy services are stepping up military spying against the United States while using Chinese students as intelligence agents and 'political influence' programs to manipulate U.S. policy."

McElroy, Damien. "China Aims Spy Network at Trade Secrets in Europe." Telegraph (London), 3 Jul. 2005. []

"A network of Chinese industrial spies has been established across Europe as the Communist government's intelligence agencies shift their resources and attention" toward espionage "aimed at achieving global commercial dominance. The extent of the spying was laid bare after a leading Chinese agent 'defected' in Belgium. The agent, who has worked in European universities and companies for more than 10 years, has given the Sûreté de l'Etat..., detailed information on hundreds of Chinese spies working at various levels of European industry."

New Zealand Herald. "Chinese Defector Kept Out." 26 Aug. 2005. []

Hao Fengjun, "granted a protection visa in Australia after backing claims of a spy network there," has been denied entry to New Zealand because of the lack of a proper entry visa. Hao, "who claims to be a defector from the Chinese National Security Bureau and former member of a spy agency known as 610 Office," has said that "he would reveal details of espionage in New Zealand."

Pomfret, John. "Taiwanese Mistake Led to Three Spies' Execution." Washington Post, 20 Feb. 2000.

This is the end-piece on the exposure of a ROC spy ring in Beijing in September 1999.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "China Frees Scholar Who Worked in U.S." New York Times, 29 Jan. 2000. []

Song Yongyi, a research librarian at Dickinson College, "detained in China for more than five months on vague charges of 'providing confidential materials to foreigners' was released" on 29 January 2000.

Santoli, Al. "China's Electronic Spy Bases in Cuba." China Reform Monitor (3 Mar. 2003). []

"Professor Desmond Ball of the Australian National University says Chinese personnel have been operating two intelligence signal stations in Cuba since early 1999, after an agreement reached in February 1998. The large complex at Bejucal, just south of Havana, is equipped with 10 satellite communications antennas and is mainly concerned with intercepting telephone communications in the U.S.... The second station is located north-east of Santiago de Cuba, reportedly dedicated to intercepting satellite-based U.S. military communications."

Thomas, Timothy L. Chinese Information-War Theory and Practice. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Foreign Military Studies Office, 2004.

Oliver, Strategic Insights 6.3 (May 2007), says that this work "provides an exceedingly thorough review of the Chinese literature on their development of Information-War (IW) both as a concept and as a capability.... The author provides ample evidence that, since [the 1997-1998 time frame], the Chinese are diligently transitioning from a mechanized force to an informationized one."

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