Wor - Wr

World Intelligence Review. Editors. "CIA Documents: The Guatemala Operations." 16, no. 3 (May/Jun. 1997): 1-2.

"On 23 May 1997, the U.S. National Archives released 1,400 pages of declassified CIA documents, including an internal history by Nicholas Cullather, revealing the details of two covert operations [PBFORTUNE and PBSUCCESS] against Guatemala's leftist regime of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman."


World Intelligence Review. Editors. "Commission to Study Post-Cold War Intelligence Needs." 13, no. 5 (1994): 4.

Worm-Muller, Jacob Stenerson. Norway Revolts Against the Nazis. London: Drummond, 1941.


Worth, Roland H., Jr. Secret Allies in the Pacific: Covert Intelligence and Code Breaking Cooperation between the United States, Great Britain and Other Nations Prior to the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland, 2001.

Seamon, Proceedings 128.1 (Jan. 2002), says that "few studies ... have ranged so widely and probed so deeply into prewar intelligence gathering" as this book does. Along the way, the author "all but demolishes conspiracy theories claiming President Franklin Roosevelt was responsible for the attack."

Although he identifies some "shortcomings" in this work, Jacobsen, I&NS 17.3, concludes that the author "does provide a very readable general overview of the Sigint, and to a lesser degree, the covert intelligence activities of the Allies against Japan" leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Kruh, Cryptologia 26.2, comments that "Worth brings together pieces of often isolated details." which allows the reader "to gain a sense of how the chain of [intelligence-sharing] alliances came to exist, how they functioned and what were their limitations." However, "knowledgeable readers will not find many surprises."

[WWII/Magic/Cooperation; WWII/PearlHarbor]

Worthington, George [RADM/USN (Ret.)]. "Naval Special Warfare Needs a Ship." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 137, no. 6 (Jun. 2011): 10.

"[B]lue-water ships ... are not outfitted to support U.S. special operations forces (SOF)." In addition, "amphibious ships are earmarked full time for Marine embarkation and [are] not available to SEALs.... SEALs and Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen (SWCC) need dedicated open-ocean ships." The littoral combat ship (LCS) "is not the answer to littoral operations involving SOF.... Refurbishing Newport-class tank landing ships might work."


Worthington, George [RADM/USN (Ret.)]. "Whither Naval Special Warfare?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 122, no. 1 (Jan. 1996): 61-63.

"After more than a decade of revitalization, how will [special operations forces] be employed?" Worthington expresses particular concern that past SOF experience will be standardized into rigid doctrine, while it is unconventionality that is really the point of SOFs.

[MI/Navy/90s; MI/Navy/SpecOps; MI/SpecOps]

Woytak, Richard A. On the Border of War and Peace: Polish Intelligence and Diplomacy in 1937-39 and the Origins of the Ultra Secret. Boulder, CO: East European Quarterly, 1979. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Wrage, Stephen. "Assassination by Remotely Piloted Vehicle." Strategic Insights 10, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 30-34. [http://www.nps.edu]

The author's baseline conclusion is that drone strikes targeted on individuals are "aligned ... with American norms" when they are conducted by the military but not when conducted by the CIA. The problem is that he has no idea of what "norms" are for the CIA drone operations. He also conflates CIA drone strikes against terrorists in Pakistan with the military's use of drones in Afghanistan. Transferring the CIA mission in Pakistan to the U.S. military, as Wrage suggests, is not something the military wants.


Wren, Christopher S. "U.S. Gives Its Backing, and Cash, to Anti-Hussein Groups." New York Times, 2 Nov. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Speaking on 1 November 1999 at a conference held by the Iraqi National Congress (INC) in New York, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas R. Pickering "made clear" that U.S. "support for Iraqi dissidents would be channeled through the Iraqi National Congress."


Wren, Harold G. "Memoir of a Japanese Language Officer." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 17, no. 1 (Jan. 2001): 7-10.

Selected for the Japanese Language School in 1942. Assignment to JICPOA on 6 June 1944. Worked on translation of captured Japanese documents. Participated in the Iwo Jima and Okinawa operations.



Wriston, Harry Merritt. Executive Agents in American Foreign Relations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1929. [Reprint] Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1967.

According to Pforzheimer, Wriston reviews "the historical and legal foundations of the executive agent, including the intelligence agent, from ... the Continental Congress through the later 19th century.... Detailed examples are presented of intelligence collection, covert action, covert procurement, protection of sources and methods ... and the Constitutional basis and precedents of each.... This book is essential to the proper understanding of the historical and legal basis of present-day American intelligence systems."

Constantinides states that for persons "interested in the early roots of U.S. intelligence or the early use of secrecy and secret funds and operations to further U.S. objectives and for an antidote to the commonly held belief that Americans historically did not undertake, show interest in, or have talent for clandestine or covert action, Wriston's scholarly but easy-to-read study is a must."


Wrixon, Fred B. Codes and Ciphers: An A to Z of Covert Communications, from the Clay Tablet to the Microdot. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992.

According to Surveillant 3.1, the entries in this encyclopedia of historic codes and ciphers are not too long yet they are surprisingly detailed. Sexton finds the work to be "[i]nadequately indexed."


Wrixon, Fred B.

1. Codes, Ciphers & Other Cryptic & Clandestine Communication: Making and Breaking Secret Messages from Hieroglyphs to the Internet. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 1998.

Kruh, Cryptologia 24.1, says that the author has made "a mighty effort to cover the entire universe of cryptology but it is impossible within the confines of a single volume.... [Nevertheless,] the book contains a great deal of interesting and useful information."

2. Codes, Ciphers, Secrets and Cryptic Communication: Making and Breaking Secret Messages from Hieroglyphs to the Internet. New ed. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2005. [pb]

From publisher: "This immensely readable world history of clandestine communication ... includes illustrations, diagrams, and puzzles that instruct readers how to become amateur cryptographers. It's the last word on secret languages!"


Wrixon, Fred B. Codes, Ciphers, and Secret Languages. New York: Random House, 1989.


Wroe, Ann. Lives, Lies and the Iran-Contra Affair. London & New York: Tauris, 1991.

Foot, I&NS 7.2, finds that Wroe asks "all the right questions ... even if the answers to some of the questions ... have to remain obscure." The author also "avoids the easy answer of blaming everything" on DCI Casey.


Wroe, David. "ASIO Turns Its Spies onto High-Tech Espionage." The Age (Melbourne), 14 Aug. 2013. [http://www.theage.com.au]

On 13 August 2012, Australian Director-General of Security told the Security in Government 2013 conference in Canberra that "cyber espionage by other countries was escalating threats amid rapid technological change -- requiring new skills for intelligence officials and laws to help combat the threats.... But he stressed that terrorism was still a danger, citing fears about young Australians fighting and being radicalised in Syria."


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