Watt - Waz


Watt, D. Cameron. "Francis Herbert King: A Soviet Source in the Foreign Ministry." Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 4 (Oct. 1988): 62-82.

King was "arrested in 1939, convicted of espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union, and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment." The author identifies "four sets of episodes which probably can be traced to his influence."


Watt, D. Cameron. "Intelligence and the Historian." Diplomatic History 14, no. 2 (Spring 1990): 199-204.


Watt, D. Cameron. "An Intelligence Surprise: The Failure of the Foreign Office to Anticipate the Nazi-Soviet Pact." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 3 (Jul. 1989): 512-534.

There are several reasons for the failure of British intelligence to anticipate the signing of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact. These include: confused and even wrong information; assessors "were misled, if not positively misdirected"; and when "confronted with evidence that did not fit their assumptions," officials at the Foreign Office tended "to question the motives of those who produced it."

[Analysis/Failures; Interwar/UK][c]

Watt, D. Cameron. "The Sender der deutschen Freiheitpartei: A First Step in the British Radio War against Nazi Germany." Initelligence and National Security 11, no. 1 (Jul. 1991): 621-626.

This article includes a comparison of British and German radio propaganda activities and styles, and comments on how the political leaders of the two countries viewed their efforts.

[UK/WWII/Services/PWE; WWII/Eur/Germany]

Watters, Pat, and Stephen Gillers, eds. Investigating the FBI. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1973.

Watts, Clint, and John E. Brennan. "Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community." Studies in Intelligence 55, no. 4 (Dec. 2011): 1-10.

"If the IC wants to deliberately and systematically counter groupthink and reduce the potential for surprise, it should consider standard methods, like surveys, to elicit and then identify outlier ideas."


Watts, Larry L. "Intelligence Reform in Europe's Emerging Democracies: Conflicting Paradigms, Dissimilar Contexts." Studies in Intelligence 48, no. 1 (2004): 11-25.

"Despite less than ideal results, many of the central and eastern European states have expended significant time and resources on vetting and lustration, making headway in this difficult area.... In other cases, reliable vetting still awaits the longer-term development of embedded institutions and established procedures."


Watts, Larry L.

1. With Friends Like These: The Soviet Bloc's Clandestine War Against Romania. Vol. I. Bucharest: Editura Militara/Military Publishing House, 2010.

Van Bebber, Parameters 41.3 (Autumn 2011), finds that the author "demonstrates that Romania never enthusiastically embraced its inclusion in the Soviet bloc and that its relationships with its nominal allies deteriorated from the early 1950s onward. Watts documents the clandestine disinformation campaign (beginning in the 1950s and heightening after the events of 1968) orchestrated by Moscow to discredit and isolate Bucharest.... Although it is poorly edited and somewhat lengthy ... it is nonetheless a worthwhile read for those who wish to understand contemporary Romania."

For Gordon, AIJ 29.2 (2011), this work is neither clearly focused nor well written. "Rather, the author presents an array of information, apparently assuming that the reader will make implicit connections related to the theme of the book." The "last chapter ends so abruptly" in 1978 that "one could surmise that it lays the groundwork for a second study that would cover the last ten years of the Ceausescu regime."

2. Extorting Peace: Romania, The Clash Within the Warsaw Pact and The End of the Cold War. Vol. II. Bucharest: RAO Publishing House, 2013.

Jones, Studies 58.2 (Jun. 2014), reviews these volumes in a single review. He concludes that Watts provides "a fair, balanced, accurate, and compelling revisionist history of Soviet bloc policy based on a meticulous study of the creation and collapse of communist Romania."

[OtherCountries/Romania/To99; Russia/CW]

Waugh, Billy, with Tim Keown. Hunting the Jackal: A Special Forces and CIA Ground Soldier's Fifty-Year Career Hunting America's Enemies. New York: Morrow, 2004. Hunting the Jackal: A Special Forces and CIA Soldier's Fifty Years on the Frontlines against Terrorism. New York: Avon, 2005. [pb]

From amazon.com: "In remarkable detail [Waugh] recounts his participation in some of the most important events in American Special Operations history, including his own pivotal role in the previously untold story of the CIA's involvement in the capture of the infamous Carlos the Jackal."

Clark comment: Did Billy Waugh do all the things he chronicles in his book? I am assured by those who know more about him than I do that Waugh has done so much that there would be no need for him to make up the stories told here. If he had not already been a Special Forces legend, going to war in Afghanistan in 2001 at the age of 72 would have established a special place for him in the pantheon of real-life action figures. It is doubtful that we would want Waugh sitting in Washington making policy; but as a warrior in the field, it is good thing that he is on our side.

[CIA/Memoirs; MI/SpecOps/00s; Terrorism/00s]

Wax, Emily, and Greg Miller. "Indian Report Accuses Pakistan's Intelligence Service of Significant Role in Mumbai Siege." Washington Post, 19 Oct. 2010. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to a classified Indian investigative report, "based primarily on the interrogation of David Coleman Headley," a Pakistani American who has pleaded guilty in U.S. federal court to helping plot the attack, Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI) "was far more involved in funding and orchestrating the 2008 Mumbai attacks than was previously believed." However, "that conclusion was disputed [on 19 October 2010] by U.S. intelligence officials, who said they saw no evidence to substantiate agency involvement."

[OtherCountries/India & Pakistan]

Waxman, Matthew C. "Emerging Intelligence Challenges." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 3 (Fall 1997): 317-331.

Traditional concepts of coercion -- the threat to use military force -- have been based on hierarchical decisionmaking, as with a state actor. However, the rise of non-state threats -- and other situations where there is a lack of well-functioning hierarchical structures -- suggests the need for greater flexibility in the employment of force by the United States and its allies. This will "require improved collection, coordination, and application of intelligence."


Way, Peter. The Encyclopedia of Espionage: Codes and Ciphers. New York: Crown, 1977. London: Aldus, 1977.

Clark comment: This is a basic text dealing with codes, ciphers, and other aspects of cryptology. Constantinides notes that Way "repeats many errors" made earlier by Winterbotham and uses Foote's account, "with all its errors and distortions," to tell the story of the Lucy ring. The pictures are good, however. For Sexton, this is a "well illustrated introduction to the history of cryptography and cryptanalysis."


Way, Roland A. "The BBC Monitoring Service and Its US Partner." Studies in Intelligence 2 (Summer 1958).

An early account of the cooperation between FBIS and the BBC Monitoring Service in supplying open-source intelligence to the two nations' intelligence communities.


Wayne, Leslie. "Cold War Foes Join as Capitalist Tools." New York Times, 7 Feb. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Former members of the CIA and KGB are "working together as business partners to provide sensitive information to American corporations.... [H]undreds of out-of-work spies from the United States and Russia are joining hands in the pursuit of capitalism, providing protection, intelligence and political risk assessments to American companies extending their reach to emerging markets and other global hot spots."


Wayner, Peter. "Court Calls Encryption Rules Unconstitutional." New York Times, 7 May 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

A three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in San Francisco ruled on 6 May 1999 that the U.S government's "restrictions on the export of encryption software are an unconstitutional prior restraint of free speech.... The decision is not expected to have much immediate effect because ... past decisions have been stayed while the appeals are heard." See also Thomas E. Crocker, "Ninth Circuit Panel Rules on Encryption Export Controls in Bernstein v. U.S. DOJ et al.," National Security Law Report, Sep. 1999, 7-9.


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