Wesley K. Wark


Wark, Wesley K. "Baltic Myths and Submarine Bogeys: British Naval Intelligence and Nazi Germany, 1933-1939." Journal of Strategic Studies 6, no. 1 (Mar. 1983): 60-81.

The author finds that both the possibility of war and the capability of the German fleet were underestimated by British naval intelligence.


Wark, Wesley K. "British Intelligence on the German Air Force and Aircraft Industry, 1933-1939." Historical Journal 25, no. 3 (Sep. 1982): 627-648.


Wark, Wesley K. "British Intelligence and Operation Barbarossa, 1941: The Failure of F.O.E.S." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 499-512. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

FOES was the British acronym for Future Operations Enemy Section, formed in December 1940 and reporting directly to the Chiefs of Staff. Its function was to seek to predict German strategy. It did not anticipate Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union.


Wark, Wesley K. "British Intelligence and Small Wars in the 1930s." Intelligence and National Security 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 67-87.

"The ... British failure to learn lessons from Spain and the other small wars of the 1930s ... was shared, on balance, by most of the European great powers.... Italy lacked the ability to learn lessons from Spain; France and Britain lack the will and imagination to do so.... The Soviet Union ... learned the wrong military lessons from Spain.... Perhaps the most critical military lessons of small wars in the decade were learned by Germany in operations conducted by the Condor Legion in Spain."


Wark, Wesley K. "Canada and the Intelligence Revolution." In Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century, eds. Heike Bungert, Jan G. Heitman, and Michael Wala, 776-192. London: Frank Cass, 2003.


Wark, Wesley K. "Coming in from the Cold: British Propaganda and Red Army Defectors, 1945-1952." International History Review 9, no. 1 (Feb.1987): 48-72.

The author reviews (and praises) the work of the Information Research Department (IRD) in processing Russian defectors.


Wark, Wesley K. "Cryptographic Innocence: The Origins of Signals Intelligence in Canada in the Second World War." Journal of Contemporary History 22, no. 4 (Oct. 1987): 639-665.

Among other aspects of the beginning of signals intelligence in Canada, this article examines the role played by Herbert Yardley in establishing the Examination Unit.


Wark, Wesley K. "From Frontier to Foreign Intelligence: The Evolution of Military Intelligence in Canada." Armed Forces and Society 16, no. 1 (Fall 1989): 77-98.


Wark, Wesley K. "'Great Investigations': The Public Debate on Intelligence in the US after 1945." Defense Analysis 3, no. 2 (Fall 1987): 119-132. [Petersen]


Wark, Wesley K. "In Never-Never Land? The British Archives on Intelligence." Historical Journal 35, no. 1 (1992): 195-203.


Wark, Wesley K. "Intelligence Predictions and Strategic Surprise: Reflections on the British Experience in the 1930s." In British and American Approaches to Intelligence, ed. K.G Robertson, 85-103. New York: St Martin's, 1987.


Wark, Wesley K. "The Intelligence Revolution and the Future." Queen's Quarterly 100, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 273-290. Studies in Intelligence 37, no. 5 (1994): 9-16.

"[T]he relative sureties of intelligence targeting that were a feature of World War I, World War II, and the Cold War will be replaced by an explosion of new threats and challenges to understanding and control."


Wark, Wesley K. "Introduction: The Study of Espionage: Past, Present, Future?" Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993): 1-13.

The "academic study of intelligence [was] truly born" out of a combination of events in the mid-1970s. Various kinds of studies of intelligence have developed. Wark identifies eight "intelligence 'projects'" that have emerged in the last 15 years. This article introduces the essays included in this "special issue" of the journal.


Wark, Wesley K. "'Our Man in Riga': Reflections on the SIS Career and Writings of Leslie Nicholson." Intelligence and National Security 11, no. 4 (Oct. 1996): 625-644.

This article, "a revised version of the introduction that appears in the reprint edition of 'John Whitwell' [Leslie Nicholson], British Agent (London: Frank Cass, 1997)," is a good piece of intelligence scholarship. It shows the work of a well-versed practitioner working with the materials available -- and around those that are not.

[UK/Interwar/30s & WWII/Services/MI6][c]

Wark, Wesley K. "In Search of a Suitable Japan: British Naval Intelligence in the Pacific Before the Second World War." Intelligence and National Security 1, no. 2 (May. 1986): 189-211.


Wark, Wesley K. "Security Intelligence in Canada, 1864-1945: The History of a 'National Insecurity State.'" In Go Spy the Land: Military Intelligence in History, eds. Keith Neilson and B.J.C. McKercher, 153-178. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.


Wark, Wesley K. "Something Very Stern: British Political Intelligence, Moralism and Strategy in 1939." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 1 (Jan. 1990): 150-170.

"As official foreign policy traced its surprising arc through appeasement to deterrence and on to the proclamation of an anti-Hitler crusade, political intelligence helped sow the seeds for a new quality of sternness and moral outrage that brought Britain to its declaration of war on 3 September 1939."


Wark, Wesley K. "Struggle in the Spy House: Memoirs of U.S. Intelligence." In Political Memoir: Essays on the Politics of Memory, ed. George Egerton. Newbury Park, Ilford, Essex: Frank Cass, 1994.


Wark, Wesley K. "Three Military Attachés in Berlin in the 1930s: Soldier-Statesmen and the Limits of Ambiguity." International History Review 9, no. 4 (Nov. 1987): 586-611.

Details the efforts of Col. Andrew Thorpe, Col. F.E. Hotblack, and Col. Noel Mason-Macfarlane to understand what was happening around them in 1930s Germany. See also Wesley K. Wark, "Military Attaché in Berlin: General Sir Frank Noel Mason-Macfarlane," Military History 12 (1984): 136-144.


Wark, Wesley K. The Ultimate Enemy: British Intelligence and Nazi Germany, 1933-1939. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Bross, IJI&C 1.2, sees Wark making an "interesting contribution to an understanding of the origins of the second World War." For Foot, I&NS 2.1, this is "an interesting, cogently argued book, which helps to explain, by showing how little they knew, why politicians at Westminster behaved so ineptly."


Wark, Wesley K., ed. "The Future of Espionage." Queen's Quarterly 100, no. 2 (Summer 1993): Entire issue.

Thornton, I&NS 10.4: These articles "dive into popular culture ... to illuminate as many relevant 'angles of enquiry' into intelligence issues as possible. The result is a diverse collection of academic pieces.... All of the articles are comprehensible and enjoyable to read.... The imaginative speculations employed in some articles will not be to the taste of the purists within some academic disciplines, but the liveliness of the text and glossy presentation of all the pieces commend themselves."


Wark, Wesley K., ed.

1. "Special Issue on Espionage: Past, Present, Future?" Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993): entire issue.

Click for a listing of the contents of this volume.

2. Espionage: Past, Present, Future? Studies in Intelligence series. London: Frank Cass, 1994.

Clark comment: This book consists of articles originally published in Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993) (see above).

Surveillant 3.6 notes that these are essays "from an international conference held at the University of Toronto devoted to the contemporary state of intelligence studies." The diversity of the articles "provides an indication of the richness of the field." For Kruh, Cryptologia 18.4, this is "a superior collection of essays, exquisitely footnoted, attesting to the scholarship of the authors, while providing numerous leads for further reading or research."


Wark, Wesley K., ed.

1. "Special Issue on Spy Fiction, Spy Films and Real Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 4 (Oct. 1990): entire issue.

2. Spy Fiction, Spy Films and Real Intelligence. Studies in Intelligence series. London: Frank Cass, 1991.

Clark comment: This book consists of articles originally published in Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 4 (Oct. 1990) (see above).


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