U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Office of Inspector General. Investigations Staff. Report of Investigation Concerning Allegations of Connections Between the CIA and the Contras in Cocaine Trafficking to the United States (96-0143-IG). Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998.

1. Overview: Report of Investigation. Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/overview-of-report-of-investigation-2.html]

"No information has been found to indicate that any past or present employee of CIA, or anyone acting on behalf of CIA, had any direct or indirect dealing with Ricky Ross, Oscar Danilo Blandon or Juan Norwin Meneses. Additionally, no information has been found to indicate that CIA had any relationship or contact with Ronald J. Lister or David Scott Weekly, the person Lister allegedly claimed was his CIA contact. No information has been found to indicate that any of these individuals was ever employed by CIA, or met by CIA employees or anyone acting on CIA's behalf."

2. Volume I: The California Story. Washington, DC: 29 Jan. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/report/index.html]

"Note: This is an unclassified version of a Report of Investigation that included information that is classified for national security reasons pursuant to Executive Order 12958 and sensitive law enforcement information. To the fullest extent possible, the text of this unclassified version is the same as that included in the classified version. Where different language has been required for national security or law enforcement purposes, the revised language is as close as possible to the original text."

2. Volume II: The Contra Story. Washington, DC: 8 Oct. 1998. [https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/contra-story/report-of-investigation-volume-ii-the-contra-story-2.html]

"No information has been found to indicate that CIA as an organization or its employees conspired with, or assisted, Contra-related organizations or individuals in drug trafficking to raise funds for the Contras or for any other purpose."

[CIA/90s/97-00/Crack; CIA/90s/98/Contras]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Office of Inspector General. Investigations Staff. Report of Investigation: Improper Handling of Classified Information by John M. Deutch. (1998-0028-IG) Washington, DC: 18 Feb. 2000.

Click for text of the unclassified version of the IG's report.


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Inspector General. Report of Investigation: Procedures used in Narcotics Airbridge Denial Program in Peru, 1995-2001. 25 Aug. 2008 [Approved for release 1 Nov. 2010]. Available at: http://www.foia.cia.gov.

The report concludes that: "Violations of the required procedures to intercept and shoot down an aircraft occurred in all 15 ABDP [Airbridge Denial Program] shootdowns in which CIA had participated, beginning in May 1995. CIA officers knew of and condoned most of these violations, fostering an environment of negligence and disregard for procedures designed to protect against the loss of innocent life that culminated in the downing of the missionary plane....

"Throughout the life of the ABDP, there was evidence of deviations trom the required procedures, both in the videotapes of the shootdowns and in the reporting cables [redaction] CIA officers charged with legal and policy oversight of the program ignored this evidence. Their failure to provide adequate oversight and report violations precluded a policy review and a possible change in course that could have prevented the shootdown of April 2001."


Central Intelligence Agency. Office of the Inspector General. Report on Central Intelligence Agency Accountability Regarding Findings and Conclusions of the Report of the Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001. Washington, DC: CIA, Jun. 2005 (released 12 Jun. 2015). [http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/DOC_0006184107.pdf]

The 12 June 2015 release also includes redacted versions of four additional documents relating to the OIG report.


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Ronald Reagan: Intelligence and the End of the Cold War, at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/historical-collection-publications/ronald-reagan-intelligence-and-the-end-of-the-cold-war/index.html.

"This collection of declassified documents and other material highlights what the CIA provided President Reagan and other top members of his national security team on key issues affecting US-Soviet relations. The collection -- made up of intelligence assessments, National Intelligence Estimates, high-level memos, and DCI talking points -- consists of over 200 documents, some 60 of which are either being made available to the public for the first time or are being re-released with new material. To help put this material in perspective, we are also including non-CIA documents from the archives of the Reagan Library to fill out the collection on the policy end."

[GenPostwar/80s/Gen & ColdWar]

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Counterintelligence Staff. The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945. Washington, DC: University Publications of America, Inc., 1979.

Also listed as Paul Kesaris, ed., The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Scouting Intelligence (Lanham, MD: University Publications of America, 1979); and The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945 (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1979).

Pforzheimer says this is "perhaps the most authoritative work on the Rote Kapelle (including the Rote Drei based in Switzerland)." It is "not easy reading." The fact that it is "essentially a staff study ... does not dilute its importance for specialists in ... Soviet intelligence."

To Constantinides, the book "will be the measure of other works on the subject until new information is discovered.... [I]t readily recognizes and admits gaps in its knowledge and takes care to distinguish fact from speculation." Aldrich, I&NS 11.3, notes that the CIA study is both "useful and accurate," but it is also "a dry handbook of tradecraft written for practitioners of counter-intelligence, rather than a rounded historical study."


U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence The Russian Security Services: Sorting Out the Pieces. Washington, DC: 1992.

Surveillant 3.1: This "reference aid provides an overview of the Russian organizations that have evolved from the USSR's KGB and internal security services. The paper also includes leadership profiles of important figures within each new entity." Clark comment: In 2012, the material here is 20 years old, which limits its usefulness.

[Russia/90s & RefMats][c]

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