Turrou, Leon G., as told to David G. Wittels. Espionage for the Führer: Undercover in America. [UK]: Allborough Publishing, 1992.
Surveillant 2.5: "A new edition of Nazi Spy Conspiracy in America. In the U.S. this was first published in 1938 by Random House under the title Nazi Spies in America."
Tuterow, Norman. The Mexican-American War: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1981.
Petersen finds this "[h]elpful in identifying items of intelligence interest."
Tuthill, Don. "Operational Planning, Pre-Pueblo." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 10, no. 1 (Winter 1994): 9-10.
"Re-edited" reprint of article from NIPQ (Fall 1988).
Tuthill, Don. "Tonkin Gulf, 1964." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 9, no. 2 (Apr. 1993): 13-14.
"Re-edited repeat appearance" of article from NIPQ (Winter 1988).
Tuttle, Andrew C. "Secrecy, Covert Action, and Counterespionage: Intelligence Challenges for the 1990s." Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 12, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 523-540.
Tuttle, Rich. "Airborne Sensors Draw New Interest." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 Jan. 1994, 61-62.
Given the establishment of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) at the Pentagon in early December 1993, "it is a fair bet that R&D on new sensors, as well as development of ground stations to handle their data, will proceed." DARO, headed by Maj. Gen. Kenneth R. Israel, "will be a clearing house for ... [tactical] sensor programs, as well as the variety of platform programs being run by the Army, Navy and Air Force."
Tweedie, Neil. "Translator at GCHQ in Court over Press 'Leak.'" Telegraph (London), 28 Nov. 2003. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]
Katharine Gun, a former GCHQ translator, "appeared in court [on 27 November 2003] charged with leaking details of a proposed Anglo-American operation to eavesdrop on members of the UN Security Council before the war in Iraq.... Gun ... was sacked following the publication of an article in the Observer alleging that the Americans had requested British help in intercepting Security Council communications."
Tweedie, Neil. "Woman Who Leaked Secret GCHQ Email Escapes Trial." Telegraph (London), 26 Feb. 2004. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]
Katharine Gun, former GCHQ linguist, "escaped prosecution [on 25 February 2004] despite admitting that she leaked a top secret email about an Anglo-American operation to eavesdrop on members of the United Nations Security Council before the Iraq war.... [T]he Crown Prosecution Service offered no evidence against Mrs Gun, despite her contravention of the Official Secrets Act. It gave no explanation and it was left only for the judge to record a not guilty verdict." See also, PA News, "Case against GCHQ Whistleblower Dropped," Times (London), 26 Feb. 2004.
Tweedie, Neil, and John Steele. "GCHQ Translator 'Revealed Secrets.'" Telegraph (London), 14 Nov. 2003. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]
Former GCHQ translator Katharine Gun was charged on 13 November 2003 with "passing classified information to an unauthorised person under Section 1 (1) of the Official Secrets Act." The charge follows publication of an article in The Observer in March "disclosing a request from the Americans for GCHQ's help in intercepting diplomatic traffic to help predict the outcome of any vote on Iraq at the UN." It is understood "Gun's lawyers will not dispute that she was the source of the article but will argue that she was justified in disclosing the information."
Twentieth Century Fund. The Need to Know: The Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Covert Action and American Democracy. With a background paper by Allan E. Goodman and Bruce D. Berkowitz. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1992.
"Covert action is likely to remain an instrument of U.S. national security policy for the foreseeable future.... At the same time, it is no longer possible to justify the enthusiasm and prominence covert action once enjoyed.... [S]ince the United States may need to hide its fingerprints on at least some operations, we need to set down some clear criteria for assessing proposed covert actions and establish effective institutions for both implementing and monitoring such activities."
According to Grose, FA 71.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1992), this is the work of a 15-member task force chaired by Harvard's Richard E. Neustadt. It "recommends tight new restrictions, mainly that overt means to achieve the same purpose be thoroughly canvassed first, that private action groups come under the same accountability requirements as government agencies and, most important, that covert action be undertaken only in support of policies that have been fully and publicly articulated. Notable is the eloquent dissent of task force member Hodding Carter III, who calls the practice an 'addiction' of the Cold War: 'To continue covert action now is to admit that we have become what we have fought.'"
Allen, DIJ 1.2, comments that although "much of this book rehashes old arguments," it is a "valuable compilation of resource material." Substantially after publication of this report, Warren, Intelligencer 14.2 (Winter-Spring 2005), opines that "[t]he bias of the task force ... precluded a real discussion of the issues." Essentially, "the report is incomplete and tainted."
To Johnson, I&NS 9.2, the "end result ... [is] outstanding ... despite its silly title." The report's recommendations call for more vigorous legislative oversight and thorough periodic review of ongoing covert actions. Its "weakest position ... is its willingness to accept post facto reporting to Congress on covert action." The report gives "a masterful summary of the key issues.... [It is] well organized, lucidly written, thorough, and sensitive to the ethical dimensions of covert action." This is the "best overview of the subject yet published."
[CA/90s & Begin; Reform/90s][c]
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