Thomas F. Troy

Thomas F. Troy died at the age of 89 on 30 July 2008. See Matt Schudel, "CIA Analyst Thomas F. Troy; Historian of Agency's Early Years," Washington Post, 2 Aug. 2008, B6.

For a nicely done remembrance of Tom Troy see Hayden Peake and Nicholas Dujmovic, "In Memory of Thomas Francis Troy, CIA Teacher, Historian, 1919-2008," Studies in Intelligence 52, no. 3 (Sep. 2008): 1-2.

Troy, Thomas F. "The British Assault on J. Edgar Hoover: The Tricycle Case." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 2 (1989): 169-209.

This is the story of Dusko Popov. It was first told by Masterman, then by Popov himself, and was confirmed by Ewen Montagu; since then, it has been taken up by many others. Troy dismantles the evidence and concludes, at a minimum, that much of the story is wrong.


Troy, Thomas F. "CIA's Indebtedness to Bill Stephenson." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 4 (Winter 2007): 717-727.

The author offers his opinion (Clark comment: better than anyone else's I am aware of on this topic) about the greatness of Stephenson "as a covert-action agent, station chief, and agent of influence in New York in 1940-1945." He suggests that the debt owed to Stephenson by the CIA is for its very existence.

[CIA/40s; UKWWII/BSC; WWII/OSS/Donovan/Arts]

Troy, Thomas F. "The Coordinator of Information and British Intelligence: An Essay on Origins." Studies in Intelligence 18, no. 1-S (Spring 1974).


Troy, Thomas F. "The 'Correct' Definition of Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5, no. 4 (Winter 1991-1992): 433-454.

Troy quotes Constantine FitzGibbon that intelligence is "knowledge of the enemy." Omitted from the definition is any mention of espionage, since espionage is really a means to the end. "Intelligence, as a kind of knowledge, stands independently of the means by which it is obtained and the process by which it is distilled."


Troy, Thomas F. Donovan and the CIA: A History of the Establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. Washington, DC: CIA, 1981. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1981.

[CIA/40s; UK/WWII/BSC; WWII/OSS/Donovan]

Troy, Thomas F. "Donovan's Original Marching Orders." Studies in Intelligence 17, no. 2 (Summer 1973): 39-69.

In seeking to reconstruct Donovan's "original marching orders" from President Roosevelt, the author focuses on "three episodes in roughly the first six months" of the history of the Coordinator of Information (COI): "(1) Donovan's meeting with the President on 18 June 1941 when FDR gave the go-ahead sign on COI; (2) the drafting of the order which made COI official on 11 July; and (3) the next few months when that order was implemented."


Troy, Thomas F. "'The Gault-Wiseman Affair: British Intelligence in New York in 1915." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 442-461.

The author looks at issues, including Gault's later animosity toward Wiseman, surrounding Wiseman's eventual replacement of Gault as the most influential British agent in the United States in the World War I period.


Troy, Thomas F. "'George': OSS's FBI Secret." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 479-498. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Troy tells the story of the dispute over intelligence operations in Latin America between J. Edgar Hoover, on one side, and William J. Donovan and William S. Stephenson, on the other. In the middle was "George," an anti-Nazi refugee.


Troy, Thomas F. "Knifing of the OSS." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 3 (1986): 95-108.

This article focuses on Walter Trohan's February 1945 articles attacking the plans for continuation of OSS. Troy proposes Harry Hopkins as the facilitator of the attack on Donovan and the OSS.


Troy, Thomas F. "The Quaintness of the U.S. Intelligence Community: Its Origin, Theory, and Problems." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 245-266.

Troy argues that the U.S. Intelligence Community "is not a community.... [I]t lacks that sense of oneness, of wholeness, and togetherness that constitutes a community. If there is any sense of community in the intelligence structure, it is in the individual agency where people have their careers and place their loyalties.... No, the 'machinery' is not a community, not even an association, only an arrangement."


[Troy, Thomas F.] "Troy Papers." U.S. National Archives. Record Group 263 (Records of the CIA). Entry Troy Papers, 12 boxes.

Troy's research notes for Donovan and the CIA. See Troy, "Writing History...," IJI&C 7.4:409/fn. 1.


Troy, Thomas F. "Truman on CIA." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 1 (Spring 1976): 21-38.

"For his role in the establishment of CIA, [Truman] does deserve some credit, but not as much as he gives himself.... He really only put the capstone on the work done by Donovan (and Stephenson) and Roosevelt."


Troy, Thomas F. Wild Bill and Intrepid: Bill Donovan, Bill Stephenson, and the Origin of CIA. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.

Warren, CIRA Newsletter 21.2, says that Troy "has destroyed some of the most cherished myths of the intelligence community and replaced them with solid facts and speculation so firmly based that it might as well be fact." It is the relationship between the CIA's father, Donovan, and its Godfather, Stephenson, that Troy has sought to explicate. He "has produced a detailed and fascinating account of two remarkable men and the process by which they established the foundation" for the CIA. "Unfortunately, by concentrating on the process and the details Troy produces little about the personality and character of his two main actors." Of course, doing so was not his goal.

For Morley, WPNWE, 29 Jul.-4 Aug. 1996, Troy's "useful study" demonstrates "in scholastic detail that Donovan was actually working in 1940-41 with senior eminences in the British Secret Intelligence Services.... The CIA, in other words, was not the brainchild of a lone bureaucratic gunslinger but the offspring of an Anglo-American liaison."

Friedman, Parameters 27 (Summer 1997), comments that "[w]idely believed tales surrounding the founding of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) by 'Wild Bill' Donovan and the role of Sir William 'Little Bill' Stephenson ... often turn out to be about as accurate as Parson Weems' fable about George Washington and the cherry tree. Troy sets these myths straight in his well-documented work." Immerman, Choice 34.2, also finds Troy's arguments "persuasive"; his work will necessitate some minor qualification of the "standard characterization of US intelligence as distinctly American."

For Crane, Aerospace Power Journal (Winter 1997), Wild Bill and Intrepid is an "outstanding, thoroughly researched account of the origins ... of the Office of Coordinator of Information (COI) and the Office of Strategic Services (OSS)." This book "is truly an intelligence treasure"; it is "[r]ich in information about World War II, declassified documents, and charismatic personalities." Kimble, Military Review (May 1998), comments that "[t]he book's endnotes are an excellent source of information for further research."

On the other hand, Hoffman, WIR 15.5, believes that Troy has "stretched [his material] precariously thin." The author's thesis is that Stephenson should be credited with assisting in "the conception and establishment of COI," but his "presentation of the evidence ... is rather confusing." Warner, JAH 83.4, also sounds a cautionary note: "Despite Troy's impressive research and analysis,... this case cannot yet be closed. We do not know whether the president ever heard Stephenson's advice."

[CIA/40s/Troy; UK/WWII/BSC; WWII/OSS/Donovan][c]

Troy, Thomas F. "Writing History in CIA: A Memoir of Frustration." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 7, no. 4 (Winter 1994): 397-411.

Marvelously told story of how the CIA bureaucracy handled Troy's biography of Donovan -- written on Agency time and with OTR support, but without the "official" sanction often given the book in reviews.


Troy, Thomas F., ed. Wartime Washington: The Secret OSS Journal of James Grafton Rogers, 1942-1943. Frederick, MD: UPA, 1987.

Although Rogers was OSS' Chief of Planning, Haglund, I&NS 4.3, finds that his journal "hardly tells anything ... about the operations (espionage, sabotage, and the like) it was his job to plan.... If Rogers is lean on operational detail, he is a veritable cornucopia of political intelligence and just plain gossip." The journal "is a readable first-person account, admirably annotated by Troy, of many major players and issues in the third Roosevelt administration."



Return to Trev-Trz