Sx - Sz


Syal, Rajeev, and David Harrison. "Pearson Faces Quiz on Communist Links." Telegraph (London), 19 Sep. 1999. []

Hull University "wants to question" economics professor Robin Pearson "about his relationships with students and whether he attempted to recruit any of them as agents for the East German security service. The authorities will ask Dr Pearson to give an account of his 12 years spying for the Stasi and 'spotting' potential British agents."


Sydney Morning Herald. "How Menzies Covered Up Spy Scandal." 21 Jan. 2000. []

According to files released to the UK Public Record Office, former Australian prime minister Robert Menzies and UK prime minister Harold Macmillan "secretly colluded to cover up an embarrassing spy scandal.... [They] were terrified the Americans would discover an RAF trainee [named only as Brown in the files] had sold secrets to the communists from guided missile trials being carried out by the two countries in Woomera, South Australia." See also, Penelope Debelle, "Murdoch's Cover-Up Role In Spy Scandal," Sydney Morning Herald, 22 Jan. 2000.


Sykes, Christopher. Wassmuss, "The German Lawrence": His Adventures in Persia During and After the War. New York: Longmans, 1936.

Constantinides: Wassmuss carried out the most successful German operations in the Middle East in World War I. Sykes tells us very little about his sources for this book.


Sylvester, Rachel. "Big Brother Blair Plans 'Snooper Computer.'" The Independent, 1 Aug. 1999. []

"Personal bank accounts, confidential medical records and individual tax files are set to be accessed by the Government as part of a far-reaching clamp down on fraud being actively considered by Downing Street. The proposal was immediately condemned by civil libertarians last night as a further step towards 'big brother Britain.'"


Syrett, David.

1. "Communications Intelligence and the Battle of the Atlantic." Archives 22, no. 93 (Apr. 1995): 45-59.

2. "Communications Intelligence and the Battle for Convoy OG 71, 15-23 August 1941." Journal of Strategic Studies 24, no. 3 (2001): 86-106.

From abstract: OG 71 was one of the first British convoys in 1941. Out of "22 vessels, two escorts and eight merchant ships" were lost to German aircraft and U-boats. Both the British and Germans made mistakes in this battle. However, "[o]ne bright spot for the British ... was communications intelligence. The battle saw the first use of high frequency direction finders and ... skill[ed] use was made of information obtained from enemy radio transmissions.... [I]mportant lessons were learned by the British from such use of communications intelligence which would pave the way for a more effective implementation of such information in future convoy battles."

3. "Communications Intelligence and the Sinking of the U-860, April-June 1944." The Mariner's Mirror 90, no. 1 (Feb. 1999): 68-75.

4. The Defeat of the German U-Boats: The Battle of the Atlantic. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.

Milner, Proceedings 121.6 (Jun. 1995), says that the author's "systematic integration of the intelligence picture into the narrative is one of the great strengths of the book.... Syrett demonstrates conclusively that the defeat of the wolf packs in 1943 owed little to the direct application of special intelligence.... [T]he Germans were simply no match for Allied aircraft and warships equipped with 10 cm radar."

While also noting Syrett's conclusion that decrypts by Bletchley Park "comprised but one of several key factors in defeating the U-boats," Herwig, I&NS 11.1, is impressed by the book's presentation of "a comprehensive and ... intelligible account of how the cryptanalysts ... 'seized' the Enigma."

5. "The Infrastructure of Communications Intelligence: The Allied D/F Network and the Battle of the Atlantic." Intelligence and National Security 17, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 163-172.

"The Allies made a huge investment in infrastructure, setting up some 50 D/F stations in the Atlantic region, all connected by high-speed electronic communications.... In the absence of decryption intelligence, D/F fixes were one of the few ways, if not the only way, in which the Allies could gain knowledge of the activities and locations of the U-boats.... Even when decryption intelligence was available, D/F fixes could still be of vital importance to the Allies."


Syrett, David. "The Secret War and the Historians." Armed Forces and Society 9 (Winter 1983): 293-328.


Syrett, David, ed.

1. The Battle of the Atlantic and Signals Intelligence: U-Boat Situations and Trends, 1941-1945. Navy Records Society. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 24.2, this edited "volume contains the U-Boat Situations and U-Boat Trends [reports] written ... by Rear Admiral J.W. Clayton, RN, head of the Admiralty's Operational Intelligence Centre, and by Commander Roger Winn, RNVR, head of the Submarine Tracking Room.... They provide an insider's history of the battle and show very clearly the extent of Allied knowledge of U-boat activities at any given time."

2. The Battle of the Atlantic and Signals Intelligence: U-Boat Tracking Papers, 1941-1947. Navy Records Society. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, identifies this work as a "unique compilation of papers written primarily by naval intelligence officers.... These documents are fundamental for a study based on original sources of SIGINT in the Battle of the Atlantic." Syrett has written an "excellent introduction."


Szabó, Máté. "Intelligence Against Dissidents: The Kádár-Regime, Control of Dissenting Intellectuals, and the Emerging Civil Society in Hungary after 1956." Journal of Intelligence History 4, no. 1 (Summer 2004). []


Szabo, Tania. Young Brave and Beautiful: The Missions of Special Operations Executive Agent Lieutenant Violette Szabo. Jersey: Channel Island Publishing, 2007.

Szabo was an SOE agent in France. Captured by the Germans on a second mission, she was murdered in the Ravensbruck concentration camp. Szabo was portrayed by Virginia McKenna in the 1958 British film "Carve Her Name with Pride." (Nash, Spies, p. 550) The author is Violette Szabo's daughter.See also, Minney, Carve Her Name with Pride (1964); and Ottaway, Violette Szabo (2002).

[UK/WWII/Services/SOE; Women/WWII/UK]

Szanton, Peter, and Graham Allison. "Intelligence: Seizing the Opportunity." Foreign Policy 22 (Spring 1976): 183-215.


Szamuely, George. "Did the U.S. Recruit Nazi War Criminals?" Commentary 85, no. 6 (Jun. 1988): 50-53.

The author considers some of the recent works that address this topic.


Szasz, Ferenc M. "Peppermint and Alsos." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 6, no. 3 (1994): 42-47.

This is a broad overview of the ALSOS Mission from secondary sources.


Szeredy, J. "Spyke" [TSgt/USAF] "Influence Operations: Integrated PSYOP Planning." Air & Space Power Journal 19, no. 1 (Spring 2005). []

"The US Air Force brings a multitude of PSYOP and influence-operations capabilities to all phases of military and diplomatic actions, and its broad base of experience can help planners find the perfect niche for assets and mission requirements."

[CA/PsyOps; MI/AF/00s]

Szulc, Tad. "Anti-Castro Units Land in Cuba; Report Fighting at Beachhead." New York Times, 18 Apr. 1961.

"Rebel troops opposed to Premier Fidel Castro landed before dawn [on 17 April 1961] on the swampy southern coast of Cuba in Las Villas Province. The attack, which was supported from the air, was announced by the rebels and confirmed by the Cuban Government."


Szulc, Tad. Compulsive Spy: The Strange Career of E. Howard Hunt. New York: Viking, 1974.

Constantinides notes that "Szulc managed to pull together much material that had reached the public domain, but questions have arisen about ... the book.... [T]here is no documentation. Certain items on CIA and its organization are quite wrong."

[CIA/70s/Gen & Biogs]

Szulc, Tad. The Secret Alliance: The Extraordinary Story of the Rescue of the Jews Since World War II. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1991.

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