Spe - Sq

Spearin, Christopher. "Special Operations Forces a Strategic Resource: Public and Private Divides." Parameters 36, no. 4 (Winter 2006-07): 58-70. [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/06winter/spearin.htm]

Despite the logic in assigning USSOCOM primary responsibility for prosecuting the war on terrorism, "such an approach threatens to exacerbate divides, real and perceived, between the conventional and unconventional military communities.... [A]s SOF in the United States and elsewhere strain to meet the expanding operational tempo and as the PSC [private security company] presence increases internationally, the 'fortunes' of both state militaries and PSCs are linked to what is becoming a zero-sum game for SOF’s expertise."


Spector, Leonard S. "Strategic Warning and New Nuclear States." Defense Intelligence Journal 3, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 33-52. Defense Intelligence Journal 7, no. 2 (Fall 1998): 45-63.

"The threat of unexpected nuclear proliferation has become a growing danger.... [M]otivations, as well as capabilities, are an essential part of the strategic warning database.... [T]he reliability of the Ten Year Rule has become problematic.... [S]ome regular type patterns of uncertainty are beginning to manifest themselves."


Spector, Ronald H., ed. Listening to the Enemy: Key Documents on the Role of Communications Intelligence in the War with Japan. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1988.

According to Sexton, this volume "[r]eproduces 21 monographs detailing the scope of U.S. Comint activities directed against Japan from 1917 through 1945."


Spence, Richard B.

Spenser, Christopher O. "Intelligence Analysis Under Pressure of Rapid Change: The Canadian Challenge." Journal of Conflict Studies 16, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 57-74.


Spiegel, Peter. "Pentagon Battle Breaks Out Over a Spy Plane." Los Angeles Times, 21 Mar. 2008. [http://www.latimes.com]

"Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates has ordered the Air Force to put nearly all of its unmanned Predator aircraft into the skies over the Middle East, forcing the service to take steps that officers worry could hobble already-stressed drone squadrons."

[MI/Ops/Iraq/08; Recon/UAVs/00s]

Spielmann, Karl. "Strengthening Intelligence Threat Analysis." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 25, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 19-43.

"Alternative analysis ... is an area where enhanced techniques could be used to better deal with current threats." See also, Karl Spielmann, "Using Enhanced Analytic Techniques for Threat Analysis: A Case Study Illustration," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 27, no. 1 (Spring 2014): 132-155.


Spiers, Edward M. "Intelligence and Command in Britain's Small Colonial Wars of the 1890s." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 5 (Oct. 2007): 661-681.

The author reviews the lessons from two campaigns -- Sudan (1896-1899) and South Africa (1899-1902). "Intelligence may not have decided the outcome in either of these conflicts but it certainly affected command decisions, tactical choices, and the evolution of British operations in the face of new conditions of warfare."


Spiller, Roger J. "Assessing Ultra." Military Review 59 (Aug. 1979): 13-23.

http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/RefBibs/intell/ww2/ultra.htm: "Cautionary note about Ultra's role" in operations and revising WWII history.

[WWII/RefMats; UK/WWII/Ultra]

Spinardi, Graham. "Science, Technology, and the Cold War: The Military Uses of the Jodrell Bank Radio Telescope." Cold War History 6, no. 3 (2006): 279-300.


Spivey, Robin V. "The Devil Is in the Details: The Legal Profession as a Model for Authentic Dissent." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 632-651.

"Expanding the Devil's Advocacy concept and improving its methodology by implementing some of the best practices from the legal world could help the Intelligence Community (IC) prevent intelligence failure and improve the quality of its analytic products."


Spohn, Lawrence. "Espionage Case Against Wen Ho Lee Looking Empty, Some Say." Albuquerque Tribune, 25 Aug. 1999. [http://www.abqtrib.com/]

"Some former employees at Los Alamos National Laboratory say they believe the momentum in the investigation of suspected Chinese espionage at the lab may be shifting from government prosecutors to the chief suspect."


Spolar, Christine. "A Cold War Spy, Warm at Last: Polish Colonel Who Fed Soviet Secrets to CIA Is Absolved by His Homeland." Washington Post, 2 Oct. 1997, A17, A20.

Col. Ryszard Kuklinski, the Polish army officer who supplied the CIA Soviet military documents from 1972 until his defection in 1981, has been absolved of charges of treason in his homeland. The decision was made public on Polish television on 22 September 1997.

[CIA/80s/Kuklinski; OtherCountries/Poland]

Spooner, Tony. Supreme Gallantry: Malta's Role in the Allied Victory, 1939-1945. London: John Murray, 1996.

Foot, I&NS 12.2, notes that Spooner flew from Luqa during Malta's wartime crisis, so he writes of the day-to-day life there from personal experience. No convoy, known through Ultra, could be attacked until it had been sighted by Allied aircraft or vessels. Nevertheless, much of the routing of reconnaissance aircraft and submarines out of Malta was assisted by Ultra information; this is a clear instance of the tactical use of Ultra. To protect that vital source, a notional anti-fascist source in Naples was created.


Spracher, William C. [COL/USA (Ret.)]. "General Sam: LTG S.V. Wilson as Both Warfighter and Intelligence Supporter of the Fight." American Intelligence Journal 27, no. 1 (Fall 2009): 77-82.

Wilson headed the DIA from May 1976 to August 1977. See also, Kenneth J. Campbell, "LTG Samuel V. Wilson, USA: Extraordinary Intelligence Officer," Defense Intelligence Journal 8, no. 2 (1999): 81-94; and "Lt. General Samuel V. Wilson: Extraordinary Intelligence Officer," American Intelligence Journal 19, nos. 3 & 4 (1999-2000): 85-92; and Drew Prehmus, General Sam: A Biography of Lieutenant General Samuel Vaughan Wilson (Hampden-Sydney, VA, Hampden-Sydney College Press. 2012).


Spracher, William C. "Homeland Security and Intelligence: Can Oil Mix with Water in an Open Society?" Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 11 (Spring 2002): 29-54.


Spracher, William C. "Mired in Gray: Juggling Legality, Lawfulness, and Ethics as an Intelligence Professional." American Intelligence Journal 25, no. 1 (Summer 2007): 63-70.

"[I]n all too many instances, the trade-off between usefulness and legality was so problematic that appropriate guidance was evident only in hindsight when it was too late to rectify the damage or resulting embarrassment." This is an expanded and updated version of William C. Spracher, "The 'Lawfulness' of Intelligence Operations," Military Intelligence 5, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1979): 11-15.


Squire, P. S. The Third Department: The Political Police in the Russia of Nicholas I. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Pforzheimer says this "is a more in-depth study..., with less social commentary" than Monas' The Third Section. It is recommended "for those seeking a deeper understanding of the traditions and modus operandi of the Tsarist and succeeding Soviet security organizations."


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