Schv - Schz


Schwab, Gerald. OSS Agents in Hitler's Heartland: Destination Innsbruck. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

This work focuses on an OSS intelligence gathering operation inside Austria in early 1945. It is based on interviews with some of those involved and on declassified OSS documents. Witmer, at, calls it "a reliable reference work and a highly entertaining read." Anderson, Air Chronicles, notes that Schwab "covers the whole spectrum of Operation Greenup, from planning through termination.... The book is both well written and researched."


Schwab, Stephen Irving Max. "Sabotage at Black Tom Island: A Wake-Up Call for America." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 367-391.

The discussion here covers not just the Black Tom explosion but takes a broad look at pre-World War I sabotage by German agents in the United States.

[WWI/U.S.; Germany/WWI]

Schwartau, Winn. Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic Highway. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1994. Information Warfare; Cyberterrorism: Protecting Your Personal Security in the Electronic Age. 2d ed. 1996. [pb]

Steele, Periscope 19.5, calls Information Warfare the "best available professional reading on the subject of C4I warfare." It "concludes with ... an outline for a recommended national C4I security strategy." This view is concurred in by Miller, IJI&C 11.2, who calls Schwartau's book "a valuable resource in the effort to combat those who seek to penetrate government, corporate, and personal security." For Kruh, Cryptologia 19.2, the author outlines "almost every kind of informational disaster imaginable."

Schwartz, John. "Controls on Export of Encryption Software to be Eased." Washington Post, 17 Jul. 2000. []

In a speech at the National Press Club on 16 July 2000, White House Chief of Staff John Podesta announced that the Clinton administration "will loosen controls on the export of encryption software.... American companies will be able to export the strongest cryptography products to users in any nation in the European Union and to Australia, Norway, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Japan. New Zealand and Switzerland."


Schwartz, John. "Cracking the Code of a CIA Sculpture." Washington Post, 19 Jul. 1999, A1. []

David Stein, a physicist who works in the CIA building, has broken the code for all but the last 97 characters on Jim Sanborn's Kryptos sculpture at the CIA. Stein's accomplishment came to light when an "amateur codebreaker,... Jim Gillogly [see above, NYT, 16 June 1999], stepped forward ... to announce on the Internet that he had made sense of all but those same 97 characters."


Schwartz, Lowell H. Political Warfare against the Kremlin: US and British Propaganda Policy at the Beginning of the Cold War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

From publisher: This work provides "a comparative study of American and British propaganda policy during the first fifteen years of the Cold War.... The narrative is told across a broad historical canvas ranging from the debates inside the top levels of the U.S. and British governments about how to confront Soviet propaganda activities, to the secret government organization tasked with planning and organizing the political warfare efforts of the West, and the story behind the West's shortwave broadcasts beamed across the Iron Curtain into the Soviet Union."


Schwartz, Noaki. "Hayden: Next president Should Let CIA Do Its Job." Associated Press, 16 Sep. 2008. []

CIA Director Michael Hayden told the Los Angeles World Affairs Council on 16 September 2008 that "[t]he best way for the next president to help the CIA would be to 'do nothing.' ... 'We're suffering reformation and transformation fatigue,'" he said.

[CIA/00s/08 & DCIAs/Hayden]

Schwartz, Peter. Inevitable Surprises: Thinking Ahead in a Time of Turbulence. New York: Gotham, 2003.

According to Hoffman, NWCR 57.3/4 (Summer/Autumn 2004), the author predicts that in the future "we will face numerous sharp jolts or major discontinuities in political, military, and economic areas." These surprises will be interconnected; and they "will bring about a different world, one in which the rules of the game are fundamentally altered." The "critical value of this work is the author's belief that many of these discontinuities have their roots in ongoing trends and that we can anticipate them. By realizing what today's driving forces are, we can alter our perception about today's emerging realities, anticipate the consequences, and avoid surprise."


Schwartzman, Robin Herman. "Fiscal Oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency: Can Accountability and Confidentiality Coexist?" New York University Journal of Law and Politics 7 (Winter 1974): 493-543.


Schwartzstein, Stuart J. D., ed. The Information Revolution and National Security. Washington, DC: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1996.

Seamon, Proceedings 125.1 (Jan. 1998), notes that both the doomsayers and the less-frenzied have their say in this edited volume.


Schwarz, Frederick A.O., Jr. "The Church Committee and a New Era of Intelligence Oversight." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 2 (Apr. 2007): 270-297.

The author was the Church Committee's chief counsel. Here, he persuasively argues the continued relevance of the lessons that came out of the Committee's work. Salient points include: "in times of crisis even constitutional democracies are likely to violate their laws and forget their values"; "too much was collected from too many for too long"; and "[i]t was not evil that caused us to do what we ought not to have done. It was zeal, fostered by excessive secrecy; vague instructions and implicit nudges or winks joined to pressure for results without attention to means; and oversight that was either lacking altogether, empty, or knowingly chose to turn a blind eye."


Schwarzwalder, John. We Caught Spies. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1946.

To Constantinides, the author, a CIC officer from North Africa to Germany, "has a tendency to make sweeping opinions and judgments based on his own experience and on what he was told. A number of these and some facts he gives have not held up with time."


Schweber, Silvan S. In the Shadow of the Bomb: Oppenheimer, Bethe, and the Moral Responsibility of the Scientist. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

According to Schecter, I&NS 16.2, the focus here is on the moral consequences of creating the atomic bomb, not on "the greatest moral question" of whether to provide classified information to the Soviet Union. The author "never raises the possibility ... that Oppenheimer had been a long-time Communist Party member who went into the Communist underground when he started work on the atomic bomb." Nor does he "deal with the campaign against Oppenheimer orchestrated by the US Air Force that led to the removal of his security clearance in 1953."


Schwien, Edwin E. Combat Intelligence: Its Acquisition and Transmission. Washington, DC: Infantry Journal Press, 1936.

Schweitzer, Carl-Christoph, ed. The Changing Western Analysis of the Soviet Threat. London: Pinter, 1990.

Herman, I&NS 6.2, notes that this book "compares Western threat perceptions in the 1950s and 1980s in NATO, US, UK, French, Dutch, and FRG circles.... But it is less an account ... of 'Western analysis' than of what politicians and other leaders said and thought about the Russians, and how it affected their dealings with them.... [T]here is not much insight here into the intelligence influence.... Above all, the book ducks round the question whether the Western picture of the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1980s was true or false."


Schweitzer, Nicholas. "Bayesian Analysis for Intelligence: Some Focus on the Middle East." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 2 (Summer 1976): 31-44. []

"The article describes Bayesian analysis, using the Delphi (expert) technique and applying it to calculating the probabilities that a war will break out between Israel and Arab states within the next 30 days."


Schweizer, Peter

Schwirtz, Michael. "Agents Deported by U.S. Are Honored in Moscow." New York Times, 18 Oct. 2010. []

On 18 October 2010, Russian President Dmitri A. Medvedev awarded government honors to at least some of the "Russian sleeper agents[] arrested in the United States this summer and deported to Russia as part of a prisoner exchange." Medvedev's spokeswoman "would not say which awards were given out or whether all 10 of those arrested this summer were among the recipients."


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