Sao - Sat


Sapsted, David. "Lecturer Should Face Spy Charges, Says Stasi Victim." Telegraph (London), 21 Sep. 1999. []

British nuclear physicist David Gosling, "who was targeted by East Germany's secret police for 20 years and drugged during a robbery by communist agents in Warsaw demanded [on 20 September 1999] that action be taken against Dr Robin Pearson, the Hull University lecturer unmasked at the weekend as a Stasi operative."


Saralayeva, Leila. "Russian TV Accuses US of Spying on Russia, China." Associated Press, 6 Apr. 2009. []

A film aired on the Rossiya TV channel on 5 April 2009 "accused the U.S. of using an air base in Kyrgyzstan to spy on Russia and China -- an allegation a spokesman for the base flatly denied" on 6 April 2009. The film also shows "a building it said was used for electronic surveillance" and "shows a woman identified as Vicki Lynn Rundquist, whom it says is first secretary of the political division at the U.S. Embassy in Kyrgyzstan and an undercover CIA agent."

[CIA/00s/09; OtherCountries/Kyrgyzstan; Russia/00s/09]

Saraphis, Stephanos G. Tr., Marian Pascoe. Greek Resistance Army: The Story of ELAS. London: Birch Books, 1951.

[OtherCountries/Greece/WWII; UK/WWII/Med]

Sarbin, Theodore R., Ralph M. Carney, and Carson Eoyang, eds. Citizen Espionage: Studies in Trust and Betrayal. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994.

According to Richards J. Heuer, Jr., "[t]he authors are behavioral scientists at the Defense Personnel Security Research Center."

[SpyCases/U.S./Gen & Treason]

Sargent, Winthrop. The Life and Career of Major John Andre, Adjutant-General of the British Army in America. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1961. New York: William Abbatt, 1902.


Sarkesian, Sam C.

1. The New Battlefield: The United States and Unconventional Conflict. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1986.

2. Unconventional Conflicts in a New Security Era: Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

McCombie, Parameters, Autumn 1995, sees this as a "scholarly, well-researched work," providing "an excellent analysis of the topic to readers who have some background in Vietnam studies or unconventional warfare." Sarkesian's "conclusions are supported by modern events in Malaysia." Despite the "brevity" of his section on Vietnam, the author "allows the reader to see easily the contrasting styles, successes, and failures of the two wars." In his valuable last chapter, Sarkesian "provides a scholarly analysis of the nature of future wars and the ability of US forces to conduct them efficiently."

3. ed. Revolutionary Guerrilla Warfare. Chicago: Precedent, 1975.

[MI/SpecOps; UK/Postwar/Malaya]

Sarkesian, Sam C., John Allen Williams, and Stephen J. Cimbala. U.S. National Security: Policymakers, Processes, and Politics. 5th ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2013.

Clark comment: This is an undergraduate textbook for a national security course. From publisher: This work "has been revised and updated throughout to reflect the challenges faced by the Obama administration."


Sarmiento, F.L. Life of Pauline Cushman, the Celebrated Union Spy and Scout: Comprising Her Early History; Her Entry into the Secret Service of the Army of the Cumberland, and Exciting Adventure with the Rebel Chieftains and Others While Within the Enemy's Lines; Together with Her Capture and Sentence to Death by General Bragg and Final Rescue by the Union Army under General Rosecrans. Philadelphia, PA: John E. Potter & Co., [1865].

O'Toole, Encyclopedia, pp. 151-152: Cushman was an actress who spied for the Union secret service and military intelligence in Louisville and Nashville. On a mission behind Confederate lines, she was captured and sentenced to death, but was left behind when Bragg's forces withdrew from Shelbyville, Tennessee.


Sarotte, M.E. "Spying Not Only on Strangers: Documenting Stasi Involvement in Cold War German-German Negotiations." Intelligence andNational Security 11, no. 4 (Oct. 1996): 765-779.

Sarty, Roger. "The Limits of Ultra: The Schnorkel U-Boat Offensive against North America, November 1944-January 1945." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 2 (Apr. 1997): 44-68.

In the first part of 1944, the Germans "began to install schnorkel breathing tubes on U-boats.... This was the beginning of the revolution in submarine warfare from predominantly surface to predominantly submerged operations." The author draws a very detailed picture of the impact the use of schnorkels had on the tactics and effectiveness of German submarines working along the Canadian coast in late 1944. He concludes that it was not the availability of Ultra alone that allowed the Allies to prevail against the schnorkel boats but, rather, "the crushing weight of Allied resources."


Sassoon, Joseph. Saddam Hussein's Ba'th Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Peake, Studies 56.4 (Dec. 2012), notes that "Chapter 4 describes the four principal security organizations in detail.... Sassoon explains the organizations' overlapping, competitive functions and how each gathered information, recruited informers, and carried out surveillance of society."


Satia, Priya. Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain's Covert Empire in the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Peake, Studies 52.3 (Sep. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.2 (Fall 2008), finds this to be a "confused and confusing book." The author "provides little new about the events already described by other historians." In addition, the term covert empire "is never defined," and the narrative displays a "pervasive semantic ambiguity."

For Tusan, H-Albion, H-Net Reviews [], Sep. 2008, this work is "[w]ell researched and cogently argued." It "analyzes the exploits of intelligence agents in order to understand British cultural, military, and political perceptions of the region that came to be known as Arabia (present-day Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq).... One of the book's key contributions to both cultural history and the history of the British Empire is how it pushes the boundaries of cultural explanations of the interwar period by placing violence at the center of the story."


Satter, Raphael. "Paper: U.K. Government Getting U.S. Spy Agency's Data." Time, 7 Jun. 2013. []

The Guardian reported on 7 June 2013 that the "U.K. has been secretly gathering communications data from American Internet giants with the help" of the NSA. The paper "said it had seen documents showing how ... GCHQ has had access to America's 'PRISM' electronic eavesdropping system since at least June 2010."


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