Sal - Sam


Sale, Richard. Clinton's Secret Wars: The Evolution of a Commander in Chief. New York: St. Martins, 2009

According to Matthew P., Studies 55.2 (Jun. 2011), the author argues that President Bill Clinton's "use of covert action[] show[s] that Clinton was more proactive and resolute in dealing with foreign policy crises than his critics have allowed." Although the reviewer does not believe Sale succeeds in making this case, he "does add to public understanding of some of the lesser-known foreign policy options available and how the first president to take office after the Cold War used them." Sale's "effusive language ... repeatedly detract[s] from the more interesting material on creative foreign policy options."


Sale, Sara L. "Admiral Sidney W. Souers and President Truman." Missouri Historical Review 86, no. 1 (Oct. 1991): 55-71.

[CIA/40s/Gen; CIA/DCIs/ThruSmith]

Sale, Tony.

1. "The Colossus of Bletchley Park." IEE Review 41, no. 2 (16 Mar. 1995): 55-59.

This article provides a brief history of the precursor of the modern computer, and tells of the ongoing effort to build a working replica at the Bletchley Park Museum.

2. "The Colossus of Bletchley Park -- The German Cipher System." In The First Computers: History and Architectures, eds. Raúl Rojas and Ujf Hashagen, 351-364. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2000.

3. The Colossus Computer, 1943-1996: How It Helped to Break the German Lorenz Cipher in WWII. Kidderminster, UK: M&M Baldwin, 1998.

Kruh, Cryptologia 23.2, finds that the author "tells the amazing story of how Colossus was developed and built to solve Germany's high-level secret messages enciphered by the Lorenz teleprinter cipher machine -- without seeing the actual machine." Sale also tells how a replica was built between 1993 and 1996.

4. "The Colossus Rebuild." In Colossus: The Secret of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, eds. B. Jack Copeland, et al., 150-156. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

5. "The Rebuilding of Colossus at Bletchley Park." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 27, no. 3 (2005): 61-69.


Salinas, David. Espionaje y Gastos en la Diplomacia Española (1663-1683): En sus documentos. [Espionage and Expenditures in Spanish Diplomacy (1663-1683): In Its Documents] Valladolid: Ambito, 1995.

Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), notes that the "documents come from the Archive of Simancas and deal with the Spanish embassies in Vienna, London, Genoa, and The Hague and the politico-military expenditures of four officials against the aggressive policy of Louis XIV of France."


Salinger, Pierre. America Held Hostage: The Secret Negotiations. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.

Salinger covers all aspects of the Iranian hostage crisis, including intelligence aspects and the rescue mission.


Sallinger, Rick. "CIA Expected To Move A Division To Denver." CBS4 (Denver), 3 Jan. 2006. []

The CIA is expected to move its National Resources Division (NRD) "to Colorado within the next year." The NRD "is involved in recruiting businessmen and foreign nationals to provide information to the U.S. government."

[CIA/Components/DO & NCS]

Sallot, Jeff. Nobody Said No: The Real Story about How the Mounties Always Get Their Man. Toronto: Lorimer, 1979.


Salminen, Esko. The Silenced Media: The Propaganda War between Russia and the West in Northern Europe. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. London: Macmillan, 1999.

Watt, I&NS 15.4, notes that the title here is "a little misleading, since his main theme, the efforts of the Soviet government to subdue the Finnish press partly by pressure on successive Finnish governments and partly by pressure on the owners and employees of the organs of the Finnish press[,] sets the balance of the book firmly on the Finnish-Soviet relationship."


Salmon, John. "'A Mission of the Most Secret and Important Kind': James Lafayette and American Espionage in 1781." Virginia Cavalcade 31, no. 2 (1981): 78-85.

Petersen: "A slave served as a double agent for the Americans."


Salmon, Patrick, ed. Britain and Norway in the Second World War. London: HMSO, 1995.

Salter, Michael. "Intelligence Agencies and War Crimes Prosecution: Allen Dulles's Involvement in Witness Testimony at Nuremberg." Journal of International Criminal Justice 2 (2004): 826-854.

See also, Lorie Charlesworth and Michael Salter, "Ensuring the After-Life of the Ciano Diaries: Allen Dulles' Provision of Nuremberg Trial Evidence," I&NS 21.4 (Aug. 2006): 568-603.

[CIA/DCIs/Dulles; GenPostwar/40s/Germany; WWII/OSS/Gen]

Salter, Michael. Nazi War Crimes, U.S. Intelligence and Selective Prosecution at Nuremburg: Controversies Regarding the Role of the Office of Strategic Services. New York: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007.

Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), finds that "[m]ost of this very detailed book dwells" on the contribution of the former OSS's war crimes staff." It also "details the involvement in Nuremberg of OSS Director William Donovan." After OSS was disbanded in 1945, "Donovan was assigned to the Nuremburg trials as deputy to Robert Jackson.... Donovan had definite views on the trials' handling, and they conflicted sharply with Jackson's.... [T]he differences with Jackson led to Donovan's dismissal." The book "is comprehensive" and, with one exception, "thoroughly documented with primary sources."

[GenPostwar/40s/Germany; WWII/OSS/Donovan & Gen]

Salter, Michael. "The Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals and the OSS: The Need for a New Research Agenda." Journal of Intelligence History 2, no. 1 (Summer 2002). [http://www.]

From abstract: The author proposes "a new research program addressing the constructive role played by different branches of the OSS in supporting the Nuremberg war crimes prosecutors, partly as a worthwhile topic in its own right but also as a much-needed corrective to the lack of balance within the present literature addressing the involvement of U.S. intelligence agencies with Nazi war crimes issues."

[GenPostwar/40s/Germany; WWII/OSS/Gen]

[Salvetti, Lloyd.] "Speech by Lloyd Salvetti, 4 May 2005," CIRA Newsletter30, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 3-11.

In an overall positive assessment of the work of the 9/11 Commission, the former Commission staffer notes that "[f]rom the 9-11 Commission perspective the major issue that has not been addressed is Congressional reform. Congressional reform is critical.... In the words of the 9-11 Commission: 'The other reforms recommended by the 9-11 Commission ... will not work if congressional oversight does not change too.'"


Salzburg, Stephen. "National Security and the Fourth and Fifth Amendments." In National Security Law, eds. John Norton Moore, Frederick S. Tipson, and Robert F. Turner, 1001-1032. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1990.


Samford, John A. [LTGEN] "The Intelligence Necessary to the Formulation of a Sound Strategy." Studies in Intelligence 1, no. 4 (Fall 1957): 1-9.

"The proper relationship of intelligence to strategy as a whole and particularly to any one strategic plan is best understood if intelligence is considered to be an identifying and measuring activity even more than a gathering or collecting process."


Samii, Abbas William. "The Shah's Lebanon Policy: The Role of SAVAK." Middle Eastern Studies 33, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 66-91.

Sammon, Bill. "Clinton Distances Himself From Scandal." Washington Times, 26 May 1999.

"In its formal response to the Cox committee report, the Clinton administration said it 'agrees with the substance of nearly all the committee's recommendations,' but 'does not agree with all of the committee's analysis.'"


Samuel, Henry. "Sex, Drugs and Facelifts: Former Spy Chief Lifts Lid on French Elite." Telegraph (London), 14 Oct. 2008. []

The French magazine Le Point has published the secret notes/diaries, compiled between 1998 and 2003, of Yves Bertrand, "sacked by President Nicolas Sarkozy when he dismantled the Renseignements Généraux (RG) police intelligence service." The notes "suggest that the RG's notorious reputation as a tool for French presidents to keep tabs on and eliminate rivals was fully deserved."


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