Kevin C. Ruffner

Ruffner, Kevin C. "CIA and the Search for Nazi War Criminals." Center for the Study of Intelligence Bulletin 10 (Winter 2000): 10-11.

The unit managing the CIA's compliance with the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act of 1998 is the Special Collections Division of the Office of Information Management (OIM).


Ruffner, Kevin C. "CIC Records: A Valuable Tool for Researchers." Center for the Study of Intelligence Bulletin 11 (Summer 2000): 11-16. American Intelligence Journal 20, nos. 1 & 2 (Winter 2000-2001): 83-87.

"While the historical community has pressed for the declassification of records from the World War II-era Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the post-war CIA," the records of the U.S. Army's Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC), "in fact, promise to shed even greater light on American intelligence activities than has been previously recognized.... While CIC concentrated on counterintelligence during World War II, it expanded into the positive collection of intelligence behind the Iron Curtain in the years after 1945.... Even into the 1950s, CIA and CIC were still trying to reconcile their intelligence missions overseas in order to avoid duplication and to coordinate the recruitment of assets....

"The CIC underwent a major expansion during the Korean War. The 1950s proved to be CIC's heyday; it enjoyed ample resources and attracted the best and brightest soldiers brought in by a draft-era Army. The expansion of military intelligence units throughout the world and their collection activities in the 1950s also resulted in growing numbers of CIC records -- a legacy of great importance to historians."

The CIC "documentary record is scattered throughout classified and declassified holdings in numerous agencies of the Federal Government. Two of the agencies, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the Investigative Records Repository (IRR) of the US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), hold the bulk of the surviving CIC records. Researchers, however, should be aware that many CIC records remain in the possession of other US government agencies, primarily those in the Intelligence Community. Likewise, researchers should consider that other repositories of unofficial records, such as the U.S. Army Military History Institute, may contain information about the Counter Intelligence Corps."


Ruffner, Kevin C. "CORONA and the Intelligence Community: Declassification's Great Leap Forward." Studies in Intelligence 39, no. 5 (1996): 61-69.

Ruffner, Kevin C. "A Persistent Emotional Issue: CIA's Support to the Nazi War Criminal Investigations." Studies in Intelligence (Semiannual ed. no. 1, 1997). []

"The public is intrigued by tales of escaped Nazis, and CIA's own mystique lends itself to the belief that it directed classified operations that allowed such people to escape from justice. The media and self-proclaimed Nazi hunters quickly link the Agency to any new rumors of one Nazi fugitive or another. This controversy will outlive its participants -- the accused war criminals and collaborators as well as their American case officers."


Ruffner, Kevin Conley. "You Are Never Going to Be Able to Run an Intelligence Unit: SSU Confronts the Black Market in Berlin." Journal of Intelligence History 2, no 2 (Winter 2002). []

From abstract: "In September 1945,... the U.S. Army arrested two OSS officers as suspects in a black market ring.... [A] board of officers convened in Germany to examine the activities of Maj. Andrew Haensel and Capt. Gustave A. Mueller.  The board reviewed the convergence of intelligence and criminal activities in early post-war Berlin and heard testimony from a number of OSS officers." While the scandal in the the Secret Intelligence Section in Berlin "received little publicity after 1946, it foreshadowed the larger problem of the black market’s deleterious effects on intelligence collection at the dawn of the Cold War."


Ruffner, Kevin C., ed. CORONA: America's First Satellite Program. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1995.

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