Rod - Rok

Rodgaard, John [LCDR/USNR], and Team.

1. "The Fifth Submarine." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 77-78.

This analysis of a 1941 Japanese photograph concludes that a fifth Japanese midget submarine "successfully entered Pearl Harbor ... [and] launched both its torpedoes." The article is excerpted from the Analysis and Final Report on Japanese Midget Submarine Activity in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, prepared for the USS Arizona Memorial by AUTOMETRIC, INC. (Dec. 6/20, 1994).

2. "Japanese Midget Submarines at Pearl Harbor." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 11, no. 2 (Apr. 1995): 1-3.

This is a slightly different and expanded version of the AIJ article above. The main photograph is larger/better here.

A letter from M.D. (Ron) Ziegler, an experienced imagery analysis who specialized in submarine I&W, in Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 11, no. 3 (Jul. 1995), 15-16, states: "I would guess ... that the torpedoes we see evidence of here came from aircraft. The 'rooster-tails' are possibly splashes from recently air-dropped torpedoes.... I see nothing in the imagery that indicates there was a submarine present."


Rodgers, James L.  "Information Warfare: Nothing New under the Sun."  Marine Corps Gazette, Apr. 1997, 23-29.


Rodgers, R. Scott.  "Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 622-641.

"All human beings make various errors of attribution and inference in their information processing. By extension analysts will tend to make the same errors. But, validated, objective measures and actuarial processes provide an avenue to improve the accuracy of decisions. Yet care must still be taken in their development, validation, selection, and interpretation."


Rodman, Burton. "The Intelligent 27." Cavalry Journal 44, no. 189 (1935): 31-36. [Petersen]


Rodman, David. "Against Fishel: Another Look at the Liberty Incident." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 9, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 73-80.

The author expresses and explains his continuing skepicism with regard to "the claim that the Israelis knowingly attacked an American ship."


Rodriguez, Felix I., and John Weisman. Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. New York: Pocket Books, 1990. [pb]

Surveillant 1.1: Rodriguez takes the reader from the Bay of Pigs to the capture of Che Guevara (he was "the last man to interrogate him") to Vietnam to Oliver North and the Iran-Contra affair.

[CIA/Memoirs; LA/Cuba/Gen; LA/Hist&Gen][c]

Rodriguez, Jose A., Jr.

Rodriguez, Paul M., J. Michael Waller, and Catherine Edwards. "Deutch in the Hot Seat for Breach." Insight on the News, 15 May 2000, 6.

Former DCI John M. Deutch "is in 'serious' trouble and is expected to face charges brought by the Justice Department's criminal division.... 'This involves far more than what has been reported in the press,' said a top federal official.... 'The review has uncovered some very serious offenses."


Roeder, Bill. "A U.S. Spy Satellite for Israel?" Newsweek, 7 Sep. 1981, 17.

Suggests that Israeli access to U.S. satellites might be a topic for conversation between President Reagan and Prime Minister Begin.


Roemer, Tim. "Adapt, Change Or Die: The Sept. 11 Proposals Are Just a Start." Washington Post, 9 Jan. 2007, A15. []

The author of this Op-Ed piece was a member of the 9/11 commission and served in the House as a U.S. Representative from Indiana. He argues that as the new Congress begins its work, "it must legislate first and oversee second.... Once Congress does its legislative work, members must turn to overseeing the executive branch."


Roemer, Tim. "How to Fix Intelligence Oversight." Washington Post, 20 Dec. 2007, A29.

In this Op-Ed piece, the former Indiana congressman and 9/11 commission member states that "[i]n their current structure, congressional intelligence committees are fundamentally ill equipped to effect real change." He argues that authorizing and appropriating powers should be combined into a single committee, as recommended by the 9/11 commission.

[Oversight/00s; Reform/00s/07]

Roesler, Gordon, and Allan Steinhardt. "Space-Based Radar Lets the Navy See It All." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128.9 (Sep. 2002): 56-58.

"Space-based radar could provide a level of awareness that is hundreds of times faster, clearer, and more complete than today's intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) toolbox."


Roewer, Helmut, Stefan Schäfer, and Matthias Uhl, eds. Lexikon der Geheimdienste im 20. Jahrhundert [Encyclopedia of Intelligence Services in the 20th Century]. Munich: Herbig Verlag, 2003.

Maddrell, I&NS 20.2 (Jun. 2005), comments that that "[a]nyone with a serious interest in intelligence who is able to read German will want a copy [of this work].... Much of the information the book contains is very useful." However, there is "the occasional mistake. These tend to affect services other than the German and Russian, reflecting the fact that the editors are no longer in their area of expertise." Although "the lack of references to sources weakens" this work, it still "represents a formidable body of knowledge."

For Doerries, JIH 4.1, this work "will be a useful tool for historians outside of Germany seeking introductory data on German agents and events as well as on specific German views on intelligence in the 20th century.... [T]he editors have included a considerable amount of data known to the professional historian but of considerable interest to a less informed general public.... [T]he absence ... of a general index is a serious flaw often preventing the reader from finding names and operations related to a context."

[Germany/RefMats; RefMats/Encyclopedias/Gen]


Rogov, A. S. "Pitfalls of Civilian Cover." Studies in Intelligence 8, no. 3 (Summer 1964): 17-33.

"Ways in which Soviet military intelligence [GRU] officers abroad [under civilian] cover are likely to betray themselves."


Rohde, William E. [CDR/USN] "What Is Info Warfare?" U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 122, no. 2 (Feb. 1996): 34-38.

This explanation of information warfare is built around the current Joint Staff definition. The author works through six categories: collection, processing, communications, offensive information warfare, protection, and issues and impact.


Røholt, Bjørn, with Bjarne W. Thorsen. Usynlige soldater: Nordmenn i Secret Service forteller. Oslo: Aschehaug, 1990.

Rohter, Larry. "Leader of Exile Group Tells of Spying for Cuba." New York Times, 11 Nov. 1992, A8.

Francisco Avila Azcuy of Alpha 66 group.


Rohwer, Jürgen.

Roig-Franzia, Manuel. "Cubans Jailed in U.S. as Spies Are Hailed at Home as Heroes." Washington Post, 3 Jun. 2006, A1. []

Although its immediate focus is the five Cubans serving long prison terms for espionage-related convictions in 2001, this article reviews some of the incidents of Cuban spying in the United States. It also quotes Cuban leaders for the view that the espionage activities are designed to protect Cuba from terrorist acts.


Rokke, Ervin J. [MGEN/USAF, ACoS/Intelligence]. "Restructuring Air Force Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 3 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 21-24.

On 1 October 1993, the Air Force Intelligence Command (AFIC) was redesignated "as the Air Intelligence Agency (AIA), reporting directly to the [ACS/I] vice the CSAF."


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