Jeffrey T. Richelson

C - H

Richelson, Jeffrey T. "The Calculus of Intelligence Cooperation." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 307-323.


Richelson, Jeffrey T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 1997. [pb]

Chambers notes that Richelson's A Century of Spies "covers human and technical intelligence in an even-handed manner and includes some technical topics that are not that well-known to the general reader.... There are a few omissions, no coverage of Soviet partisans in World War II for example, and the Ames case was too recent to merit more than a paragraph and a footnote, but some recent important cases that did not receive a great deal of coverage ... are discussed. The style of the book is consistently expository and analytical and not judgmental.... [The book] is well-written with each chapter internally cohesive and the overall flow is extremely smooth. References are extensive at over 2,000.... It will be an invaluable resource for the student of politics and military history and for the general reader for many years to come." Click for Chambers' full review.

To the Surveillant 4.2 reviewer, A Century of Spies is "as readable as a spy novel," an opinion concurred in by Jonkers, AIJ 17.3/4, who calls the book a "very readable overview." According to Cutler, Proceedings 121.11 (Nov. 1995), the "people and the technology that have made espionage what it has been over the last century are interwoven into this factual and fascinating account."

McGinnis, Cryptolog, Fall 1995, says this book "contains a remarkable collection of stories involving essentially every known spy operation of this century.... It is a good anthology of spying operations of all sorts, and it makes interesting reading particularly for the novice. It would make a good text book for individuals who need to know something about spying, and how it has been done in the past, and how some of it continues to be accomplished."

For Fromkin, FA 75.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1996), "A Century of Spies reminds us how central the ordinary business of spying and counterspying has been to the politics, diplomacy, and wars of modern history. Almost encyclopedic in scope, Jeffrey Richelson's valuable and comprehensive book provides concise and clearly written summaries of espionage operations from 1900 to our time."

Rich, WIR 15.3, finds a "fast-paced and engagingly written account" by "a fine writer [who] knows his subject.... [S]ome of the more complicated situations are amazingly well told despite the constraints of space." This is true specifically with regard to the story of the Zimmermann telegram and of the events leading up to Pearl Harbor. To Kruh, Cryptologia 20.1, this notable book "describes significant intelligence activities, organizations, and people who played a role in important intelligence operations during the past century." It is an "encyclopedic volume essential for anyone interested in military history, espionage, codebreaking and world affairs."

In one of the less praising reviews of A Century of Spies, Watt, I&NS 11.3, suggests that the author is "indiscriminate ... in his choice of sources" and has produced "a survey of old fashioned pseudo-historical spy books." The book "fails entirely to put clandestine intelligence operations in an overall view of the system of international relations obtaining at any one time."


Richelson, Jeffrey T. "Civilians, Spies, and Blue Suits: The Bureaucratic War for Control of Overhead Reconnaissance, 1961-1965." A National Security Archive Monograph. Jan. 2003. []

"In early 1958, there was still great uncertainty and even more concern about the extent of the Soviet missile threat.... The urgency attached to developing a successful reconnaissance satellite led, in addition to the approval of the CORONA program, to the creation of a special Air Force office to manage the SAMOS effort, and ultimately, to the 1961 creation of a top secret National Reconnaissance Program (NFP) and an organization to coordinate that program -- the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)."


Richelson, Jeffrey T. "Desperately Seeking Signals," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 56, no. 2 (Mar.-Apr. 2000): 47-51.

This is a relatively level-headed review of the state of play surrounding the multinational Echelon system operated by the partners to the UKUSA agreement. Richelson comments that "[a]n intercept operation that scoops up a good deal of the world's communications satellite traffic, automatically processes it in search of whatever intelligence any UKUSA nation wished, and then sends it on its way, would be unsettling." But he follows that by noting that "[a]t least for the immediate future the reality seems to be somewhat less frightening."


Richelson, Jeffrey. Eyes on the Bomb: U-2, CORONA, and KH-7 Imagery of Foreign Nuclear Installations. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 186. []

This "posting includes 15 photographs and five photographic interpretation reports from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The images were obtained by U-2 spy planes and CORONA and KH-7 reconnaissance satellites. The interpretation reports were produced by the CIA's Photographic Intelligence Center as well as its Imagery Analysis Division and the National Photographic Interpretation Center."


Richelson, Jeffrey T. Foreign Intelligence Organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988.

According to NameBase, Richelson "offers organization-chart overviews of the services of several countries, and summaries of some of the current issues. Included are the United Kingdom (GCHQ, SIS, MI5, DIS, Special Branch); Canada (RCMP, CSIS, CSE, FIB); Italy (SISDE, SISMI, and the P2 problem); West Germany (Nazis, Gehlen, BND, BfV); France (SDECE, DGSE, DST, and the Rainbow Warrior scandal), Israel (Mossad, Aman, Shin Bet, Lakam); Japan (Naicho, PSIA, commercial trade intelligence); and China (ILD, UFWD, MSS, MID, New China News Agency)."

Cline, PSQ 104.1, finds that, "[g]iven the uneven quality of the information available to him, Richelson has done a skillful job of weaving together a systematic description of the secret intelligence agencies of eight important nations.... This ... publication is a reference tool that, despite its limitations, will be handy on the shelf for any researcher dealing regularly with the arcane world of secret intelligence."

[Canada; China; France; Israel; Italy; Japan; Germany; UK]

Richelson, Jeffrey T. "From Corona to Lacrosse: A Short History of Satellites." Washington Post, 25 Feb. 1990, B1, B4.


Richelson, Jeffrey T. "From JAM SESSION to the PFIAB: Albert Wheelon and U.S. Intelligence." Intelligencer 20, no. 2 (Fall-Winter 2013): 23-31.

Albert D. "Bud" Wheelon died on 27 September 2013. Here, the author outlines Wheelon's role in the development of and direction of the CIA's DS&T.

[CIA/Components/DS&T; Recon/Sats]

Richelson, Jeffrey T. "From MONARCH EAGLE to MODERN AGE: The Consolidation of U.S. Defense HUMINT." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 131-164.

This article reviews the issues surrounding the concept of centralization of military human intelligence assets and activities from 1947 (rather than from 1982's MONARCH EAGLE plan) through the formation of the Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) in 1995 ("initial operational capacity") and slightly beyond. The author also discusses the structure of the DHS and some its initial operations. He concludes that "the chance of returning to service-run HUMINT programs seems non-existent" but leaves open the final disposition of the military's peacetime clandestine HUMINT collection function.


Richelson, Jeffrey T. "The Future of Space Reconnaissance." Scientific American 264, no. 1 (1991): 38-44.


Richelson, Jeffrey T. "High Flyin' Spies." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 52, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct. 1996): 48-54.


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