Rae - Rama

Rafalko, Frank J. MH/CHAOS: The CIA's Campaign Against the Radical New Left and the Black Panthers. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2011.

Goulden, Washington Times, 9 Dec. 2011, and Intelligencer 19.1 (Winter-Spring 2012), notes that this book "relies on CIA documents gathered during the course of MH/CHAOS, plus the author's personal experience. It will perhaps stand as the ultimate objective study of a program that proved highly controversial." The author argues that Presidents Johnson and Nixon "had legal authority to order the CIA to keep tabs on the threats" even if domestic.

A well-reasoned take on MHCHAOS is provided by Fischer, IJI&C 26.4 (Winter 2013-2014), in a review of Rafalko's book. Fischer finds that "Rafalko's combined memoir and history" of MHCHAOS "suffers from inadequate editing and fact-checking, with much repetition." Nevertheless, it is "a valuable look at a very contentious period" in CIA history.

[CIA/60s/Gen & 70s/Gen]

Rafalko, Frank J., ed.

1. A Counterintelligence Reader: American Revolution to World War II, Volume One. Washington, DC: NACIC, 1998.

2. A Counterintelligence Reader: World War II, Volume Two. Washington, DC: NACIC, 1998.

3. A Counterintelligence Reader: Post-World War II to Closing the 20th Century, Volume Three. Washington, DC: NACIC, 1998.

Clark comment: These three volumes provide almost 900 pages of information on counterintelligence covering the entire span of U.S. history. Many cases mentioned have not previously been discussed widely.

4. A Counterintelligence Reader: American Revolution into the New Millenium, Volume Four.Washington, DC: NACIC, [2004].

From "Preface": "We have taken material from official government documents, indictments from several espionage cases, and articles written by professors, scholars and counterintelligence officers. We have abridged some selections while trying not to change the sense of the original but we have not altered the original usage of the English language.... At the end of each chapter is a selected bibliography.... The reader is not all-inclusive and people may disagree with our selections, but at least we hope to have provided sufficient material to entice our colleagues to do further research."

All four volumes are available at: http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps54742/counterintelligencereader/ci/docs/ and http://www.fas.org/irp/ops/ci/docs/index.html.


Raffel, Robert R. "Intelligence and Airport Security." Studies in Intelligence 50, no. 3 (Sep. 2006).

"Much information is available through open sources, but challenges involve prioritization and analytical capability. Local intelligence, given the relative ease of collection and immediate applicability to the individual airport, has value to the airport security manager.... [M]ore work needs to be done in the area of trend analysis."


Ragavan, Chitra, and Carol Hook. "China Doll." U.S. News & World Report, 10 Nov. 2003, 38ff.

"U.S. News has conducted an extensive review of the [Katrina Leung] case..., examining hundreds of pages of court records and interviewing more than a dozen current and former counterintelligence experts. The review reveals a systemic failure of security procedures and a stunningly free-and-easy pattern of access by Leung to some of the nation's most highly secret intelligence operations."


Ragavan, Chitra, et al. "Special Report: Mueller's Mandate." U.S. News & World Report, 26 May 2003, 18-25.

The mandate of FBI Director Robert Mueller III is essentially to prevent terrorist attacks like those 9/11. If he can fulfill this mandate, it "will represent the most sweeping structural and philosophical shift in the FBI's history. In a series of exclusive interviews with U.S. News, Mueller and his top aides detailed the steps they have begun to take. The changes, they say, mean transforming an investigative agency into an intelligence-gathering service and reorienting virtually everything about the FBI's institutional culture and its traditional operating procedures."


Rahr, Alexander. "The Revival of a Strong KGB." RFE/RL Research Report 2, no. 20 (14 May 1993): 74-79.


Raiford, William Newby. To Create a Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: A Legislative History of Senate Resolution 400. CRS Report No. 76-149F. Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 1976.

Raj, Althia. "Canada Swarming with Foreign Spies: CSIS Head." Montreal Gazette, 14 Jun. 2011. [http://www.montrealgazette.com]

In the annual reportof the Canadian Security Intelligence Service presented to Parliament on 13 June 2011, CSIS director Richard Fadden said that "Canada is a hotbed of activity for foreign intelligence agencies.... Canada's strong relationship with key allies and its advanced telecommunications and mining sectors make it attractive to foreign intelligence agencies, Fadden explained." He noted, however, that "the main threat to Canada continues to be terrorism, primarily Islamist violence."


Rajan, S. Danny, Alan T. Chien, and Bernard V. Brower. "Advanced Commercial Imagery Compression for Future Systems." Defense Intelligence Journal 8, no. 1 (Summer 1999): 33-53.

"Implementing an end-to-end -- any collector to any user -- system as part of future imagery architectures will require significant improvements in the way that imagery is disseminated, exploited, and archived. A key enabling technology ... is image compression."


Rake, Denis. Rake's Progress: The Gay and Dramatic Adventures of Major Denis Rake MC. London: Leslie Frewin, 1968.

The author served with SOE in World War II. See Elliott, The Shooting Star (2009).


Ramage, James A. Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1986.

Tipton, MI 21.4: Morgan "contributed significantly to the Confederate war effort. His primary offering was intelligence.... Ranging from middle Tennessee to the Ohio River, Morgan scouted the Yankee movements, intuitively discerning intent and relaying that intelligence to his superiors.... Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) may have been born in Kentucky in 1862." Morgan had in his command a Canadian telegrapher who "developed a portable system which allowed him to tap into Federal telegraph lines, intercepting messages and inserting 'imitative communications deception'.... I highly recommend this book ... as a good read and as documentation of the history of combat intelligence operations."


Ramakrishna, Kumar.

1. "Content, Credibility and Context: Propaganda, Government Surrender Policy and the Malayan Communist Terrorist Mass Surrenders of 1958." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 242-266.

"[T]he potency of government surrender policy in the form of the Merdeka [independence] amnesty was explicable because after 21 December 1957, the three crucial factors of government credibility, the attractive content, and the favourable political and strategic contexts, finally intersected."

2. Emergency Propaganda: The Winning of Malayan Hearts and Minds, 1948-1958. New York: Routledge, 2001. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 2002.

From publisher: "This book ... demonstrat[es] how British propaganda decisively ended the shooting war in December 1958. Essentially, the study breaks new ground by arguing for a concept of 'propaganda' that embraces not merely 'words' in the form of film, radio and leaflets but also 'deeds' such as the behavior of Government representatives and certain official policies. It argues that for propaganda to be effective, the message transmitted by the propagandist's words must be congruent with that suggested by his actual deeds."

[1.GenPostwar/CW/I&NS; 1. & 2. UK/Postwar/Malaya]

Raman, B. Intelligence: Past, Present and Future. New Delhi: Lancer, 2002.

Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), says that the author "presents a survey of Indian intelligence from colonial times ... to the present.... His approach is topical, covering all elements of modern intelligence." This "is a text book by an experienced intelligence officer who certainly understands the fundamental elements of the profession and provides a framework for successful operations, not only in India, but in any democratic society."

[Overviews/Gen/00s; OtherCountries/India]

Raman, B. The Kaoboys of R&AW: Down Memory Lane. New Delhi: Lancer, 2007.

Clark comment: The reference in the title is to Rameshwar Nath Kao, the first chief of the Research & Analysis Wing (R&AW), India's foreign intelligence service.

Peake, Studies 52.1 (Mar. 2008) and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), notes that the author "tells about India's struggle to develop a full range of intelligence service capabilities while at war with Pakistan and China and while managing conflicts among religious factions and dealing with tribal disputes on its borders.... Raman does not provide operational detail in terms of tradecraft or case studies." The book "gives a good high-level overview of the formation, evolution, and current status of the Indian intelligence services."

For Arpin, NWCR 61.3 (Summer 2008), the author's "informal (and somewhat unfocused) memoir ... provides an interesting view from India on critical past and current U.S. policies." Raman "outlines several instances of R&AW working with the CIA to counter Chinese moves, while at the same time claiming that the CIA was working against India -- sometimes with Pakistan, sometimes not.... While expressing a fondness for the American people, Raman is definitely no fan of the U.S. State Department. Curiously, he displays no animosity for the CIA, despite his claims that the agency engineered a key defection and conducted 'psywar' campaigns against India."


Return to R Table of Contents

Return to Alphabetical Table of Contents