Op - Or


Oppel, Richard A., Jr., Mark Mazzetti, and Souad Mekhennet. "Behind Afghan Bombing, an Agent With Many Loyalties." New York Times, 5 Jan. 2010. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to Western government officials, "[t]he suicide bomber who killed seven C.I.A. officers and a Jordanian spy last week was a double agent who was taken onto the base in Afghanistan because the Americans hoped he might be able to deliver top members of Al Qaeda's network." The officials said that "[t]he bomber had been recruited by the Jordanian intelligence service [the General Intelligence Directorate] and taken to Afghanistan to infiltrate Al Qaeda by posing as a foreign jihadi....

"The remains of the seven C.I.A. officers killed in the attack arrived in a military plane on [4 January 2010] at Dover Air Force Base, where a private ceremony was held. The event was attended by Leon E. Panetta, the C.I.A. director, as well as by family members of the slain officers."

See also, Joby Warrick and Peter Finn, "Suicide Bomber Who Attacked CIA Post in Afghanistan Was Trusted Informant from Jordan," Washington Post, 5 Jan. 2010.


Oppel, Richard A., Jr., and Rod Nordland. "U.S. Is Reining In Special Forces in Afghanistan." New York Times, 15 Mar. 2010. [http://www.nytimes.com]

U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal "has brought most American Special Operations forces under his direct control for the first time, out of concern over continued civilian casualties and disorganization among units in the field.... Previously, Special Operations forces in Afghanistan often had separate chains of command to their own headquarters elsewhere."


Orbaan, Albert. Duel in the Shadows: True Accounts of Anti-Nazi Underground Warfare During World War II. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1965.

Library Journal (via http://www.worldcat.org): "The history of the resistance to the Nazis in France, Denmark, Norway and the Benelux countries, retold from accounts of individual underground fighters."


O'Rear, William Marty. "A Peace-Drunk Fighter: Pacifist Norms and the Japanese Intelligence Community." American Intelligence Journal 28, no. 1 (2010): 128-135.

"Pacifist restraints on ... three areas (protection of secrets, covert collection capabilities, and satellite imgery) have undermined the utility and potential of the Japanese Intelligence Community."


O'Reilly, Kenneth.

1. "Adlai E. Stevenson, McCarthyism, and the FBI." Illinois Historical Journal 81 (Spring 1988): 45-60. [Jeffreys-Jones]

2. "The FBI and the Origins of McCarthyism." Historian 45 (1983): 372-393. [Jeffreys-Jones]

3. "Herbert Hoover and the FBI." Annals of Iowa 47 (1983): 46-63. [Jeffreys-Jones]

4. Hoover and the Un-Americans: The FBI, HUAC, and the Red Menace. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1983.

5. "Racial Matters": The FBI's Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972. New York: Free Press, 1989. [Jeffreys-Jones]

6. "The Roosevelt Administration and Black America: Federal Surveillance Policy and Civil Rights during the New Deal and World War II Years." Phylon 48 (1987): 12-45. [Jeffreys-Jones]


Orlov, Alexander.

Orman, John M.

1. Presidential Secrecy and Deception: Beyond the Power to Persuade. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1980.

Wilcox: "Critical study of executive secrecy."

2. Presidential Accountability: New and Recurring Problems. Contributions in Political Science, No. 254. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1990.

Surveillant 1.5 notes that there is a chapter on "Presidential Accountability in Controlling Intelligence." The book also "looks at the conflict between national security and civil liberties." The author's conclusion is that "Americans have lost the desire to hold presidents accountable for their actions."


Ormont, Arthur. Master Detective: Allan Pinkerton. New York: Julian Messner, 1965. [Petersen]


Ornstein, Jacob. "The Articulation of Babel." Studies in Intelligence 4, no. 4 (Fall 1960): A1-A9.

"Planning is the answer to the language problem of the intelligence service, planning based on a long-term view of predictable requirements."


Oros, Andrew L. "Japan's Growing Intelligence Capacity." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-25.

The author argues that Japan "maintains a greater foreign intelligence capability than commonly is acknowledged." In addition, "the decision to develop a network of domestically produced and deployed spy satellites marks the biggest evolution in Japan's intelligence capability."


O'Rourke, Ronald. Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations -- Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Updated 1 Jun. 2006. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RS21125.pdf.

"The Coast Guard is the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security.... The Coast Guard's homeland security operations pose several potential issues for Congress, including adequacy of Coast Guard resources for performing both homeland security and non-homeland security missions, and Coast Guard coordination with other agencies involved in maritime homeland security."


O'Rourke, Ronald. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 15 Mar. 2013. Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22373.pdf.

From "Summary": "The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy's recent IW operations have been those carried out by Navy sailors serving ashore in Afghanistan and Iraq. Many of the Navy’s contributions to IW operations ... are made by Navy individual augmentees (IAs) -- individual Navy sailors assigned to various DOD operations.... The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets."


Orr, Kenneth G. "Training for Overseas Effectiveness: A Survey." Studies in Intelligence 4, no. 4 (Fall 1960): A11-A21.

Reviews non-government programs to prepare Americans for various kinds of service abroad.


Orsini, Alessandro. Tr., Sarah J. Nodes. Anatomy of the Red Brigades: The Religious Mind-set of Modern Terrorists. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.

Freedman, FA 90.5 (Sep.-Oct. 2011), finds that the author of this "remarkable book" stresses "the importance of ideology in legitimating terrorism." However, the book "can be hard going at times, with dollops of pedantic sociology."

[OtherCountries/Italy; Terrorism/10s/Gen]

Orton, J. Douglas, and Jamie L. Callahan. "Important 'Folk Theories' in Intelligence Reorganization." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 411-429.


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