O - Oc

Oakes, Chris. "Echelon 'Proof' Discovered." Wired News, 26 Jan. 2000. [http://www. wired.com]

Jeffrey Richelson, National Security Archives researcher, has found "[r]eferences to a project Echelon" in declassified NSA documents obtained under FOIA. Richelson "said the documents indicate that it may not have nearly the illicit scope and nature held by some of the more extreme conspiracy theories.... In fact, Richelson said he doubts the agency has overstepped any legal bounds in executing the Echelon program."

Richelson's introduction to the documents is available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB23/index.html. The documents with Richelson's annotations are available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB23/index2.html.


Oakes, James L. "The Doctrine of Prior Restraint Since the Pentagon Papers." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 15, no. 3 (Spring 1982): 497-519.

Calder: Includes discussion of the Marchetti and Snepp cases.


Oakley, David. "Taming the Rogue Elephant?" American Intelligence Journal 26, no. 2 (Winter 2008-2009): 61-67.

Since 1975, the CIA has "reacted to the negative image" portrayed in the congressional hearings "by an increasing tendency toward risk aversion and through the self-imposition of overly restrictive regulations and policies." Thus, the Church and Pike committees' "psychological impact was far more lasting than most legislative actions have been. By showing that the CIA could be utilized as a scapegoat, Congress inadvertantly began the process of turning to the Agency as a whipping post for policy failures."


Oakley, Howard T. "The Riverbank Publications on Cryptology." Cryptologia 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1978): 324-330.


Oakley, Phyllis.

1. "Intelligence and Research in the Department of State." American Intelligence Journal 13, no. 3 (Summer 1992): 21-24.

2. "Intelligence Support to Diplomacy: Issues and Trends," Intelligencer 10, no. 1 (Feb. 1999): 12-15.

Presentation to AFIO Symposium, 6 November 1998, by the Assistant Secretary of State, INR.


O'Ballance, Edgar. Electronic War in the Middle East, 1968-70. North Haven, CT: Shoe String Press, 1974.

O'Ballance, Edgar. Malaya: The Communist Insurgent War, 1948-1960. London: Faber & Faber, 1966.


Oberdorfer, Don. "A Carefully Covert Plan to Oust Hussein." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 25-31 Jan. 1993, 19.

Outgoing national security adviser Brent Scowcroft told a group of Washington Post editors and reporters that the Bush administration "adopted a covert action plan to oust Iraqi President Saddam Hussein from power but was careful not to violate the longstanding ban on attempting to assassinate a foreign leader."


O'Brien, James. "Trojan Horses: Using Current U.S. Intelligence Resources to Successfully Infiltrate Islamist Terror Groups." International Affairs Review 14 (Fall/Winter 2005): 137-165.


O'Brien, John L. "Uncle Sam's Spy Policies: Safeguarding American Liberty During the War." Forum 61 (1948): 592-611.

Calder: "During World War I, every person was considered a spy chaser.... Wrongs were committed by 'amateur detectives.'"


O'Brien, Kevin A.

O'Brien, Michael J.

1. "Hercules Mulligan: Confidential Agent of General Washington in New York during the Revolution." Journal of the American Irish Historical Society 26 (1927): 96-104. [Calder]

2. Hercules Mulligan: Confidential Correspondent of General Washington. New York: P.J. Kennedy, 1937.


O'Brien, Terence. The Moonlight War: The Story of Clandestine Operations in Southeast Asia, 1944-45. London: Collins, 1987.

Erskine, IJI&C 4.1: O'Brien expresses his "anger at ISLD's [Inter-Services Liaison Department, the codename for the British Secret Service in India] inefficiency." The "principal enemy was ... weather and the fiendishly difficult terrain." O'Brien is a gifted writer" and his book is "full of detailed insights on British clandestine operations."


O'Callaghan, Sean. The Informer: The Real Story of One Man's War against Terrorism. London: Corgi, 1999.

From publisher: For 14 years before 1988, the author "had been the most highly placed informer within the IRA and had fed the Irish police force with countless pieces of valuable information." This "is the story of a life lived under the constant threat of discovery and its fatal consequences."


O'Carroll, Helen. "William Melville -- Spymaster." Kerry Magazine 18 (2008).

Born in Ireland, Melville joined the London Metropolitan Police in 1872 and in 1883 joined the Special Irish Branch. By 1900, he was a Superintendant, but "retired" in 1903. In actuality, Melville had joined the War Office's Directorate of Military Operations as an agent controller. When the Secret Service Bureau was established in 1909, he became its chief detective. [Note: There are no sources given for this article.]


Occleshaw, Michael. Armour Against Fate: British Military Intelligence in the First World War. Columbus, OH: Ohio University Press, 1989. Armour Against Fate: British Military Intelligence in the First World War and the Secret Rescue from Russia of the Grand Duchess Tatania. London: Virgin Books, 1989.

Chambers calls this work "serious history." Keith Jeffery, "Intelligence and Military History: A British Perspective," in Military History and the Military Profession, eds. David A. Charters, Marc Milner, and J. Brent Wilson, 114 (Westport, CT, Praeger, 1992), says that this otherwise "industriously, informative account" is marred by a "sensational narrative of an improbable attempt to rescue the Russiam imperial family ... in the summer of 1918."


Occleshaw, Michael. Dances in Deep Shadow: Britain's Clandestine War in Russia. London: Constable & Robinson, 2006.

According to Peake, Studies 51.1 (Mar. 2007), the author "suggests that the role of allied intelligence services, particularly Britain's," in the intervention in Russia at the end of World War I "was far greater than heretofore acknowledged."



O'Connor, Kevin. Blake, Bourke and the End of Empire. London: Prendeville, 2003.

George Blake and Sean Bourke [The Springing of George Blake (1970)].


Return to O Table of Contents

Return to Alphabetical Table of Contents