Lis - Liu


Lisee, Jean-Francois. In the Eye of the Eagle. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1990.

Lister, David. "Britain's Top Spy Inside IRA Goes into Hiding." Times (London), 12 May 2003. []

"Britain's most important agent inside the IRA was in hiding last night after his identity and details of his 25-year career as a ruthless executioner was exposed by newspapers in Dublin and Belfast. The agent known as Stakeknife, whose intelligence was so significant that it was processed by a dedicated team and read at Cabinet level, was named [on 11 May 2003] as Alfredo 'Freddie' Scappaticci. Security officials said that he was in a secret safe house....

"The bricklayer son of an Italian immigrant who joined the Provisionals in the early 1970s, Mr Scappaticci rose through the IRA's ranks to become a trusted friend of Gerry Adams and deputy head of the infamous 'Nutting Squad', which tortured and killed suspected informers."


Lister, David, and Ian Cobain. "IRA Mole: The Killer Who Became Britain's Finest Weapon." Times (London), 12 May 2003. []

"When Alfredo 'Freddie' Scappaticci wandered up to an Army base outside Belfast in 1978 and asked to speak to somebody important there was little to mark him out as the man who would become Britain's most important weapon against the IRA." See also, Anthony McIntyre, "How Stakeknife Paved Way to Defeat for IRA," Times (London), 12 May 2003.


Liston, Robert A. The Dangerous World of Spies and Spying. New York: Platt & Munk, 1967. [Petersen]


Liston, Robert A. The Pueblo Surrender: A Covert Action by the National Security Agency. New York: M. Evans, 1988.

Clark comment: Conspiracy theory runs wild in this book. Kross, IJI&C 5.1, comments that the author's "provocative ... assumptions ... are not backed up by fact"; nevertheless, the book is "well written." [Clark comment: "Well-written" fiction is still fiction.]


Litoff, Judy Barrett, ed. and intro. An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia D'Albert-Lake. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press, 2006

From publisher: "Litoff brings together two rare documents" written by Virginia (Roush) d'Albert-Lake -- her "diary of wartime France until her capture in 1944 and her prison memoir written immediately after the war." Viginia and her husband, Philippe d'Albert-Lake, joined the Resistance in 1943. She "put her life in jeopardy as she sheltered downed airmen and later survived a Nazi prison camp. After the war, she stayed in France with Philippe, and was awarded the Légion d'Honneur and the Medal of Honor. She died in 1997."

[Women/WWII/France & U.S.]

Litt, David. "Special Ops Forces are 'Tool of Choice.'" National Defense 87 (Feb. 2003): 20-22.


[Litt, Robert.] "Does the Intelligence Community Keep Congress Fully and Currently Informed? Testimony of Robert Litt, General Counsel, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations and Subcommittee on Intelligence Community Management, 27 Oct. 2009." Intelligencer 17, no. 2 (Fall 2009): 15-16.

"Since the beginning of the 111th Congress, the Intelligence Community has provided the HPSCI over 500 written Congressional notifications, given approximately 800 briefings, and participated in 20 HPSCI hearings."


Little, Douglas. "Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria 1945-1958." Middle East Journal 44, no. 1 (Winter 1990): 51-75.

In line with the claims of Miles Copeland, this article concludes that Zaim's 30 March 1949 coup in Syria was the work of the CIA. Little speculates that the final approval for the coup was given during the visit to Damascus in March of Assistant Secretary of State George McGhee.

Rathmell, "Copeland and Za'im," I&NS 11.1/fn. 26, notes that Little's comments "are purely speculative and, on current evidence, cannot be supported." Certainly, there is nothing in McGhee's own account of his visit that would link him to the coup. See George McGhee, Envoy to the Middle East (New York: Harper & Row, 1983).


Little, Robert. "NSA Methods Lag in Age of Terror." Baltimore Sun, 9 Dec. 2004. []

According to analysts, "[t]he code-breaking and 'signals intelligence' work that the NSA does best -- rooted in complex mathematics and linguistic dexterity -- will never go out of style as long as nation-based threats such as North Korea and Iran exist.... But it is far less vital against an enemy that sleeps in caves and cellars, and communicates in whispers."


Little, Wendell E. "The Intelligence Bookshelf." Air University Review 30 (May-Jun. 1979): 85-91. [Petersen]


Littleton, James. Target Nation: Canada and the Western Intelligence Network. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1986.

Henderson, IJI&C 24.2 (Summer 2011), p. 418/fn. 1, refers to this as a "survey[] on Canadian intelligence during the Cold War period."


Littlewood, Jeremy (Jez). "Accountability of the Canadian Security and Intelligence Community Post 9/11: Still a Long and Winding Road?" In Democratic Oversight of Intelligence Services, ed. Daniel Baldino, 83-107. Sydney: Federation Press, 2010.


Litzcke, Sven Max, Helmut Müller-Enbergs, and Dietrich Ungerer. Intelligence-Service Psychology. Frankfurt: Verlag für Polizeiwissenschaft, 2008. [Hughes]


Liu, Edward C. Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Extended Until June 1, 2015. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Jun. 2011. []

"On May 26, 2011, in the face of imminent expiration, three amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) were extended until June 1, 2015.... Two amendments were enacted as part of the USA PATRIOT Act.... The third amendment was enacted in 2004, as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA)."


Liu, Edward C. The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 28 May 2009. Available at:

From "Summary": "In the 111th Congress, House and Senate versions of bills entitled “the State Secrets Protection Act,” H.R. 984 and S. 417, have been introduced to codify the privilege. The bills would additionally limit the privilege to cases where significant harm to national security was presented, require judicial review of the actual information claimed to be privileged, and require the Attorney General to report to Congress within 30 days of any invocation of the state secrets privilege."


Liu, Edward C., and Charles Doyle, Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 16 Jun. 2011. Available at:

From "Summary": "[A] number of authorities affecting the collection of foreign intelligence information are still temporary. Three such provisions (the lone wolf, roving wiretap, and business record sections of FISA) are set to expire on June 1, 2015. Additionally, provisions added by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, relating to the use of foreign intelligence tools to target individuals while they are reasonably believed to be abroad, will expire on December 31, 2012."


Liu, Melinda. "A Secret War on the Roof of the World: Spooks, Monks and the CIA's Covert Gamble in Tibet." Newsweek, 16 Aug. 1999. []

"How the CIA took the Dalai Lama's disciples under its wing is one of the most exotic episodes in the annals of Western intelligence. The intimate details of Operation STCIRCUS are only just now emerging," but Newsweek has learned that the operations of the Tibetan guerrillas "scored spectacular intelligence coups including ... early hints that China was developing the atomic bomb."


Liulevicius, Vejas Gabriel. Espionage and Covert Operations: A Global History. Chantilly, VA: The Great Courses, 2011.

To Dujmovic, Studies 56.2 (Jun. 2012), the breadth of this "audio course," consisting of 12 CDs with 24 lectures that run 12 hours, "is impressive, covering ... spying and operations throughout human history." However, the course teacher "lacks experience and significant academic background in the field." He "seems shaky or inconsistent in relating basic concepts." This is, nevertheless, "a good, pioneering effort."


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