Lio - Lir


Lippman, Thomas W. "A Blueprint to Overturn Iraq." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 10 Aug. 1998, 14.

"Directed by Congress to pursue more vigorous efforts to bring down Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, the Clinton administration has responded with a detailed ... plan to rebuild Iraq's shattered opposition and prepare a case for a possible war crimes indictment of Iraqi leaders."


Lippman, Thomas W. Arabian Knight: Colonel Bill Eddy USMC and the Rise of American Power in the Middle East. Vista, CA: Selwa Press, 2008.

From publisher: "Lippman has used the astonishing life of Bill Eddy to trace the rise of American involvement in the region -- from a handshake between FDR and Ibn Saud on the deck of an American cruiser in 1945 to the first Marine landing in Lebanon in 1958.... Arabian Knight is the rare book that fuses biography and political history.... It is the story of a warrior, a scholar, a spymaster and a diplomat."

Peake, Studies 54.4 (Dec. 2010), and Intelligencer 18.2 (Winter-Spring 2011), comments that "[t]he discussion of the evolving CIA-State relationship is particularly good.... A well done biography of a fine officer."


Lippman, Thomas W. "For Safety's Sake, Should Some U.S. Embassies Close?" Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 18 Jan. 1999, 17.

This report focuses on the part of the report of the Crowe panel that suggests the most vulnerabable U.S. embassies may have to be closed in favor of regional offices in areas that can be better protected.


Lippman, Thomas W. "Two Governments Cloak Details of the Capture." Washington Post, 19 Jun. 1997, A10.


Lippman, Thomas W. "Vulnerable Embassies Still a Problem for U.S." Washington Post, 4 Aug. 1999, A15.

A year after "the Clinton administration drew up plans to spend billions of dollars to protect U.S. personnel abroad ... the process of replacing vulnerable embassies has barely begun."


Lippman, Thomas W., and John M. Goshko. "'Spying' by UNSCOM Denied." Washington Post, 7 Jan. 1999, A18.[]

"Clinton administration officials acknowledged [on 6 January 1999] that the United States has received intelligence information about Iraq from United Nations weapons inspectors but described the flow of data as a byproduct of the inspectors' mission."


Lippold, Kirk S. [CDR/USN (Ret.)] Front Burner: Al Qaeda's Attack on the USS Cole. New York: Public Affairs, 2012.

Daniel, Proceedings 139.3 (Mar. 2013), notes that in this work the former commanding officer of the USS Cole "repeatedly states that the events surrounding the Cole attack represented a series of systemic errors at every level of the defense and intelligence communities..... Ultimately, the author concludes that the biggest tragedy of the Cole incident was that it did not serve as a catalyst for decisive action against al Qaeda."

[GenPostCW/00s/Gen; Terrorism/00s/Gen]

Liptak, Adam. "Appeals Court Upholds Dismissal of Abuse Suit." New York Times, 3 Mar. 2007. []

On 2 March 2007, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit ruled that Khaled el-Masri, a German citizen of Lebanese descent who alleges kidnapping and abuse by the CIA, "cannot seek redress in court because his lawsuit would expose state secrets." The opinion was written by Judge Robert B. King for the court's unanimous three-judge panel.

[CIA/00s/07; Overviews/Legal/Military]

Liptak, Adam. "Judge Voids F.B.I. Tool Granted by Patriot Act." New York Times, 7 Sep. 2007. []

On 6 September 2007, Judge Victor Marrero of the Federal District Court in Manhattan "struck down the parts of the recently revised USA Patriot Act that authorized" the FBI "to use informal secret demands called national security letters to compel companies to provide customer records." He "ruled that the measure violated the First Amendment and the separation of powers guarantee."

[FBI/00s/07; Overviews/Legal/Topics/PatriotAct]

Liptak, Adam. "Justices Turn Back Challenge to Broader U.S. Eavesdropping." New York Times, 26 Feb. 2013. []

In a 5-to-4 vote, the Supreme Court on 26 February 2013 "turned back a challenge" to the 2008 "federal law that broadened the government's power to eavesdrop on international phone calls and e-mails.... Writing for the majority, Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. said that the journalists, lawyers and human rights advocates who challenged the constitutionality of the law could not show they had been harmed by it and so lacked standing to sue."


Liptak, Eugene. Office of Strategic Services 1942-45: The World War II Origins of the CIA. Oxford: Osprey, 2009. [pb]

According to the publisher of this brief, popular treatment (64 pages), this "story of the origins and development of the American espionage forces covers all of the different departments involved, with a particular emphasis on the ... teams operating in the field. The volume is illustrated with many photographs, including images from the film director John Ford who led the OSS Photographic Unit and parachuted into Burma in 1943."


Liptak, Kevin, and Ashley Killough. "Brennan Confirmed for CIA after Drone Delay." CNN, 7 Mar. 2013. []

By a vote of 63-34, the U.S. Senate on 7 March 2013 confirmed John Brennan as the next CIA director. Associated Press, 8 Mar. 2013, reports that Vice President Joe Biden swore Brennan in on 8 March 2013.

[CIA/10s/13 & DCIAs/Brennan]

Lipton, Eric. "Administration Trying for Spy Satellites Again." New York Times, 18 Sep. 2008. []

A "$1.7 billion project approved last week" seeks "to have two new satellites in orbit by 2012." The government's last spy satellite effort, the so-called Future Imagery Architecture, was canceled in 2005 before a single satellite was launched, at a cost of "at least $4 billion." There is already debate over whether the new program, the Broad Area Space-Based Imagery Collector, "should be building two new satellites of its own or acquiring images from private companies."


Lipton, Eric. "C.I.A. Veteran Races Time to Rescue Fledgling Agency." New York Times, 16 Feb. 2007. []

Charles E. Allen, who heads DHS's intelligence unit, "has taken on ... a job that virtually no one else wanted, to rescue a fledging intelligence operation that gets little respect and assumes a role doubters say is not even necessary." As he encounters opposition both outside and inside the DHS, "[s]ome of Mr. Allen’s friends believe his task is almost hopeless."


Lipton, Eric. "Homeland Security Chief Announces Overhaul." New York Times, 14 Jul. 2005. []

Speaking to department employees on 13 July 2005, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff announced "he was reorganizing his sprawling department to better prevent -- or at least react to -- a terrorist attack.... [T]he secretary said ... he plans to appoint a new intelligence chief ... and an assistant secretary for cyber and telecommunications security." Other steps "will be the hiring of a chief medical officer to help plan for the thousands of casualties that might result from a biological, chemical or nuclear attack. An under secretary for policy will also be named, as will a director of operations coordination."


Lipton, Eric. "Report Sees Confusion Likely in a Sea Attack by Terrorists." New York Times, 4 Apr. 2006. []

A report released on 3 April 2006 by the Department of Justice inspector general warned that "[p]otentially disastrous confusion could arise during a terrorist attack on a cruise ship or ferry because of a power struggle" between the FBI and the Coast Guard "over who would be in charge." After 2001, the Coast Guard, a part of DHS, "created 13 specialized teams based at major ports around the nation ... [and] trained to respond to a hostage situation or other maritime terrorism.... The F.B.I., a division of the Justice Department, has 14 of what it calls enhanced maritime SWAT teams and a separate hostage rescue team trained to respond to maritime terrorism....

"The government tried to clarify the roles through an October 2005 document called the Maritime Operational Threat Response." It says the DHS and its agencies, including the Coast Guard, "take the lead 'for the interdiction of maritime threats in waters where D.H.S. normally operates,' American ports and coastal waters. The document says the role of the Justice Department and the F.B.I. is to search for clues to prevent maritime terrorism and, if there is an attack, to investigate and prosecute. But the new report says the 2005 document has 'not eliminated the potential for conflict and confusion in the event of a terrorist incident at a seaport.'"

[DHS/06; FBI/00s/06; MI/CG; Terrorism/00s/06]

Lipton, Eric. "Spy Chiefs Say Cooperation Should Begin at the Bottom." New York Times, 14 Oct. 2004. []

On 13 October 2004, former DCI George J. Tenet, DIRNSA Lt. Gen. Michael V. Hayden, and NGA Director Lt. Gen. James R. Clapper Jr. told a symposium sponsored by the United States Geospatial-Intelligence Foundation "that the way to defend the United States against terrorist attacks was not to reshuffle the top management but to improve cooperation among rank-and-file analysts, spies, investigators and military officers."


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