Levchenko, Stanislav. "The KGB." New Counterpoint 7, no. 2 (Winter 1992): 2-7.

Levchenko, Stanislav. On the Wrong Side: My Life in the KGB. Washington, DC: Permagon-Brassey's, 1988.

Levenstein, Aaron. Escape to Freedom: The Story of the International Rescue Committee. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Although Namebase dismisses this book as "an in-house puff piece written for the International Rescue Committee's fiftieth anniversary," it is a useful counterpoint to Chester's Covert Network: Progressives, the International Rescue Committee, and the CIA (1995).


Lever, Paul. "If It's Broke, Fix It: The Reform of Two Intelligence Services." RUSI Journal, Feb. 2005. [www.rusi.org/intelligence]

"Last summer it was a tale of two reports. The Senate Intelligence Committee produced a scathing condemnation of the US intelligence community's assessment of Iraq's capability ... to deliver weapons of mass destruction. Lord Butler and his team published a more measured, but no less critical, review of the parallel failures in Britain. In both cases reforms were promised.... [T]hese reforms are [now] in place or at any rate in early prospect. As with the reports which provided the impetus for them their styles are very different."

[Reform/00s/05/Gen; UK/PostCW/05]

Levering, Ralph B. The Cold War: A Post-Cold War History. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1994.

Cold War Connection, "Top Books on the Cold War," http://www.cmu.edu/coldwar/annot.htm, says that "this compact, highly readable book provides a balanced diplomatic history of the Cold War."


Leverkuehn, Paul. German Military Intelligence. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1954. New York: Praeger, 1954.

According to Pforzheimer, Leverkuehn is a former member of the Abwehr and, thus, provides an insider's look at Admiral Canaris. Constantinides points out that, while the author headed the Abwehr station in Istanbul from 1941 to 1944, he "has left out or missed" much, and "his loyalty to his old service and ... Canaris is undiminished." See also, Jähnicke, "Lawyer, Politician, Intelligence Officer: Paul Leverkuehn in Turkey, 1915-1916 and 1941-1944," JIH 2.2 (Winter 2002).

[WWII/Eur/Ger/Canaris & Gen]

Levin, Bob, et al. "A Grim Pentagon Critique."  Newsweek, 1 Sep. 1980, 20-21.

On Holloway Report.


Levin, Carl. "Press Release: Levin Releases Newly Declassified Pentagon Inspector General Report on Intelligence Assessment Activities of the Office of Under Secretary of Defense Doug Feith." 5 Apr. 2007. [http://www.fas.org/irp/news/2007/04/levin040507.html]

In releasing the report, Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI), Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said: "It is important for the public to see why the Pentagon's Inspector General [IG] concluded that [Under] Secretary [of Defense for Policy Doug] Feith's office 'developed, produced and then disseminated alternative intelligence assessments on the Iraq and al-Qaeda relationship,' which included 'conclusions that were inconsistent with the consensus of the Intelligence Community,' and why the Inspector General concluded that these actions were 'inappropriate.'"

The declassified report by the Pentagon Inspector General, dated 9 February 2007, is available at: http://www.fas/org/irp/agency/dod/ig020907-decl.pdf. A rebuttal from Feith's Office, dated 16 January 2007, to a draft version of the IG report, is available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/ousd011707.pdf. The arguments in the latter amount to a lengthy "we didn't do anything wrong."

[GenPostCW/00s/07; MI/00s/07; MI/Ops/Iraq/07]


Levit, Kenneth J. "The CIA and the Torture Controversy: Interrogation Authorities and Practices in the War on Terror." Journal of National Security Law & Policy 1, no. 2 (2005): 341-356.

"It is important to distinguish ... between coercive measures used for interrogation and abusive practices in a detention facility that have no bearing on intelligence gathering efforts.... Interrogation tactics and gratuitous abuse of detainees raise different issues.... [I]t would be reckless for CIA leadership not to seek legal advice from the Department of Justice in determining how to carry out its responsibilities for interrogation under a covert action finding without breaking the law. As the interrogation controversy has taken shape, it is becoming increasingly clear that the Agency did in fact take significant steps to ensure that it had met its legal responsibilities.... [W]here mistreatment is not likely and there is a well articulated legal basis for a rendition of a particular detainee to a particular destination country, a rendition should be considered legal."


Levite, Ariel. Intelligence and Strategic Surprise. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Clark comment: Levite, a former Israeli defense analyst, looks at the intelligence-strategic surprise nexus through the cases of Pearl Harbor and Midway. Kovacs, IJI&C 10.4, says that Levite has a "good bibliography on strategic surprise."

In a lengthy analysis, Uri Bar-Joseph, "Review Article: Methodological Magic," Intelligence and National Security 3, no. 4 (Oct. 1988), 134-155, argues that "this study suffers from fundamental methodological mistakes that undermine its theoretical value. Obviously, the most problematical issue here is the comparison made between two types of strategic surprise: one that starts a war (Pearl Harbor) and the other which takes place while war is in progress (Midway).... [In addition,] [t]he way Levite treats threat indicators before Pearl Harbor leads one to suspect that his judgement might have been biased, at least partially, toward minimizing the quality and accuracy of these indicators."

[Analysis/Surprise; WWII/PearlHarbor/Gen]

LeVitre, Rose [RADM/USN] Part 1 of 2. "'J2!' -- More than a Letter and a Number." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 19, no. 4 (Dec. 2003): 7-9. Part 2 of 2. Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 20, no. 1 (Feb. 2004): 16-19.

The author discusses her assignment as Pacific Command J2.


Levitsky, Melvyn. "Fighting Terrorism: A New Kind of Enemy and a New Kind of War." Defense Intelligence Journal 11, no. 1 (Winter 2002): 11-15.

"[W]e must view our embassies as forward deployed assets and protect their ability to function effectively as a key objective in our overall campaign."


Levy, David.

1. "The Sad Tale of Fred Rose, Stalin's Man in the True North." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 350-366.

Rose was a Canadian Member of Parliament when he was uncovered as a Soviet spy by Igor Gouzenko.

2. Stalin's Man in Canada: Fred Rose and Soviet Espionage. New York: Enigma, 2011.

Peake, Studies 56.3 (Sep 2012) and Intelligencer 19.3 (Winter-Spring 2013), calls this work "well documented and a useful contribution to the literature of espionage."


Levy, Steven. Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government -- Saving Privacy in the Digital Age. New York Viking, 2001.

Powers, NYRB, 21 Jun. 2001, and Intelligence Wars (2004), 243-255, finds that this work recounts "in lively detail" NSA's "clandestine campaign" against public encryption. "How these [public key] systems actually work is complicated but not dauntingly so," and Powers "urge[s] interested readers to consult Levy's book."

[Cryptography/Encryption; NSA/Overviews]

Levytsky, Boris. Uses of Terror: The Soviet Secret Police, 1917-1970. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1971. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegen, 1972.

Rocca and Dziak: "Should be used with caution."



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