Leif - Leo


Leifland, Leif. "Deception Plan Graffham and Sweden: Another View." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 2 (Apr. 1989): 295-315.

Operation Graffham was one of the deception efforts designed to mislead the German command as to where the Allies would land in Western Europe. It sought to use Swedish contacts to make the Germans believe that large-scale military operations in Norway were being planned. Comparing Swedish and British sources, the author argues that the plan failed because the Swedes did not pass along the rumors being planted with them.


Leigh, David. Betrayed: The Real Story of the Matrix Churchill Trial. London: Bloomsbury, 1993.

Leigh, David. The Wilson Plot: How the Spycatchers and Their American Allies Tried to Overthrow the British Government. New York: Pantheon, 1988.

Leigh, Ian. "Legal Access to Security Files: The Canadian Experience." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 2 (Apr. 1997): 126-153.

Leigh, Ian, and Laurence Lustgarten. "The Security Service Act 1989." Modern Law Review 52 (Nov. 1989): 801-836.


Leighton, Marian K. "Strange Bedfellows: The Stasi and the Terrorists." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 27, no. 4 (Winter 2014): 647-665.


Lemarchand, Rene. "The CIA in Africa." Journal of Modern African Studies (Sep. 1976).


Lemire, Laurent. Alan Turing: L'homme qui a croqué la pomme. Paris: Hachette littératures, 2004.


Lenahan, Rod. Crippled Eagle: A Historical Perspective of U.S. Special Operations, 1976-1996. Charleston, SC: Narwhal Press, 1998.

Despite its subtitle, Crear, AIJ 18.1&2, finds that this work "is overwhelmingly an account of the preparations for, conduct of and aftermath of the 1980 effort to rescue the American hostages in Tehran." The author "has used his personal knowledge of the operation in all its complexities and aspects plus a great quantity of material that has been declassified in recent years to write a riveting account."

[GenPostwar/80s/Iran; MI/SpecOps]

Lendon, Brad. "New Spy Plane Can Be Drone or Flown by Pilot." CNN, 9 May 2011. [http://news.blogs.cnn.com]

On 9 May 2011, Northrop Grumman Corp. introduced the Firebird intelligence-gathering system, "a spy plane that can be used as a drone or with a pilot onboard.... Northrop designed the Firebird's intelligence gathering systems while Scaled Composites, founded by experimental aviation pioneer Burt Rutan, designed and built the aircraft." According to Northrop, the propeller-driven aircraft "can fly up to 30,000 feet, with an endurance time as long as 40 hours."


Lendvai, Paul. The Bureaucracy of Truth: How Communist Governments Manage the News. London: Burnett, 1981. [Cummings]


Lentner, Howard H. "The Pueblo Affair: Anatomy of a Crusis." Military Review 49 (Jul. 1969): 55-66. [Petersen]


LeoGrande, William M. Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America 1977-1992. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Maxwell, FA 77.6 (Nov.-Dec. 1998), finds this "a compelling and elegently written ... exegesis of the bitter struggles over U.S. policy toward Central America in the 1980s.... By paying so much attention to Washington, however, LeoGrande gives too little credit to the Central Americans themselves for the ultimate outcome of peace."

For Robinson, APSR 94.4, this "is a truly encyclopedic study, a meticulously documented and minutely detailed reconstruction" of U.S. policy toward the region. Nonetheless, there are "substantial weaknesses." The work lacks a theoretical framework or even a central argument; the author's perspective too closely reflects his service on the staff of the Democratic leadership in Congress in this period; and the Washington-centric view leaves "key pieces of the story ... untold."


Leon, Mark. “CTO of CIA Matches Technology to Mission.” InfoWorld, 16 Apr. 2002, 40.

Bob Flores is the CIA's chief technology officer for information services infrastructure. He was originally hired as a DI economic analyst in 1977, but by the early 1980s had become a computer analyst. He argues that "the essence of what separates a CTO from other technology professionals … is the understanding that the technology has to support the business."


Leonard, Elizabeth D. All the Daring of the Soldier: Women of the Civil War Armies. New York: Penguin Books, 2001.

[CivWar/Conf/Women & Un/Women]

Leonard, Raymond. Secret Soldiers of the Revolution: Soviet Military Intelligence, 1918-1933. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000.


Leonard, Raymond W. "Studying the Kremlin's Secret Soldiers: A Historiographical Essay on the GRU, 1918-1945." Journal of Military History (Jul. 1992): 403-421.


Leonard, Tom. "Editors Told to Hand Over Letter from MI5 Rebel." Telegraph (London), 18 Mar. 2000. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

On 17 March 2000, Judge Martin Stephens ordered that correspondence between former MI5 officer David "Shayler and Alan Rusbridger, editor of the Guardian, Roger Alton, the Observer editor, and Martin Bright, his home affairs correspondent, be passed on to Special Branch as Shayler had apparently breached the Official Secrets Act." See also, Richard Norton-Taylor, "Newspapers Challenge Order to Hand Over MI5 Case Documents." The Guardian, 18 Mar. 2000.


Leonnig, Carol D. "Plame's Suit Against Top Officials Dismissed." Washington Post, 20 Jul. 2007, A5. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 19 July 2007, a U.S. district judge dismissed a lawsuit filed by Valerie Plame and her husband "against Vice President Cheney and other top officials over the Bush administration's disclosure of Plame's name and covert status to the media.... The judge said that such efforts are a natural part of the officials' job duties, and, thus, they are immune from liability." Because he was dismissing the claims for jurisdictional reasons, he did not express an opinion on the merits of the case.


Leonnig, Carol D., and Dafna Linzer. "Spy Court Judge Quits In Protest: Jurist Concerned Bush Order Tainted Work of Secret Panel." Washington Post, 21 Dec. 2005, A1. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

U.S. District Judge James Robertson has resigned from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. According to two sources, the resignation is "in protest of President Bush's secret authorization of a domestic spying program."


Leonnig, Carol D., Ellen Nakashima, and Barton Gellman. "Secret-Court Judges Upset at Portrayal of 'Collaboration' with Government." Washington Post, 29 Jun. 2013. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

Members of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) "are chafing at the suggestion that they were collaborating with the executive branch." U.S. District Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly, former FISC chief judge from 2002 to 2006, "took the highly unusual step [on 28 June 2013] of voicing open frustration at the account" in the classified 2009 draft report by NSA's inspector general and the "court's inability to explain its decisions."


Leopold, George. "Cardillo to Replace Letitia Long as Head of NGA." Defense Systems, 2 Jun. 2014. [http://defensesystems.com]

The Defense Department announced on 2 June 2014 that Robert Cardillo will replace Letitia Long as NGA Director in October 2014. Cardillo has been seving as Deputy Director for Intelligence Integration, ODNI.


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