Lee, A.D. Information and Frontiers: Roman Foreign Relations in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

To Sheldon, IJI&C 9.2, the author's "almost painful" avoidance of the term "intelligence" reflects an attitude toward his material that may explain why this "well-written and meticulously researched book" falls short of being the definitive work on intelligence-gathering in the late Roman period. A "true study of intelligence would have given us so much more" than Lee has done here.


Lee, Alex [LTCOL/USMC (Ret.)]. Force Recon Command: A Special Marine Unit in Vietnam, 1969-1970. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Lee, Bruce. Marching Orders: The Untold Story of World War II. New York: Crown, 1995. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2001. [pb]

According to Surveillant 4.2, Lee uses U.S. decrypts linked to a chronology of events to show the impact of this intelligence "on Chief of Staff George C. Marshall and how [it] influenced his strategic prosecution of the war." McGinnis, Cryptolog 17.3, says that the "author has done a commendable job in obtaining information about the U.S. planning process as well as obtaining copies of the related decrypted messages. He managed to pull the two together in a very readable format. This is an excellent book."

For Kruh, Cryptologia 20.1, this "is a remarkable book" that makes "a significant contribution to the historiography of World War II." Sexton also sees Marching Orders as a "valuable contribution to intelligence literature," but believes the book "could have benefitted from careful editing." Publishers Weekly (via Amazon.com) finds that Lee "significantly overstates the direct connection between Magic code intercepts and Allied decision-making. Much of his information is also available in Carl Boyd's Hitler's Japanese Confidant, a significantly superior work of analysis and interpretation."


Lee, Christopher. "CIA Ties with Ex-Nazis Shown: Anti-Communist Effort Is Detailed in Agency Records." Washington Post, 7 Jun. 2006, A21. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"The CIA organized Cold War spy networks that included former Nazis and failed to act on a 1958 report that fugitive Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann was living in Argentina, newly released CIA records show. The records were among 27,000 pages of documents made public [on 6 June 2006] at the National Archives."

According to Steven Aftergood, Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 7 Jun. 2006, initial assessments of the documents were prepared by four historians for the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Nazi War Crimes, which was created by Congress in 1998:

Timothy Naftali, "New Information on Cold War CIA Stay-Behind Operations in Germany and on the Adolf Eichmann Case." Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/naftali.pdf.

Robert Wolfe, "Gustav Hilger: From Hitler's Foreign Office to CIA Consultant." Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/wolfe.pdf.

Richard Breitman, "Tscherim Soobzokov." Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/breitman.pdf.

Norman J.W. Goda, "CIA Files Relating to Heinz Felfe, SS Officer and KGB Spy." Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/goda.pdf.

[CIA/00s/06; GenPostwar/40s/Ger]

Lee, Deborah R. "The Joint Reserve Intelligence Program: Proving the Value of an Integrated Force." Officer, Apr. 1998, 31-34.

At this time, the author was Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs. The article focuses on the increased use of Reserve Intelligence during peacetime.


Lee, H.P. "The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation -- New Mechanisms for Accountability." International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38 (Oct. 1989): 890-905.


Lee, J.M. "British Cultural Diplomacy and the Cold War, 1945-61." Diplomacy and Statecraft 9, no. 1 (Mar. 1998): 112-134.

[CA/Eur; UK/Postwar/Gen]

Lee, John A. N., and Golde Holtzman. "50 Years after Breaking the Codes: Interviews with Two of the Bletchley Park Scientists." IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 17, no. 1 (1995): 32-43.

Interviews with Irving John Good and Donald Michie.


Lee, Loyd E., ed. World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, with General Sources: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1997.

Kruh, Cryptologia 22.1, notes that in this "extensive reference work ... authorities in the main areas of scholarly and popular interest" in the history of World War II discuss "the best and most enduring literature related to the [war's] major topics and themes." Part IV is entitled "The War Between the Lines," and includes chapters on "Intelligence: Code Breaking, Espionage, Deception, and Special Operations" and "Resistance Movements in Europe." The individual chapters "describe the state of knowledge" for each topic, "point out needed areas of research," and "provide a select bibliography."


Lee, Martin A., and Bruce Shlain.

1. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion. New York: Grove, 1986.

The focus is the CIA's MKULTRA project. Wilcox identifies the book as belonging to the genre of conspiracy theory. "CIA doped hippies with LSD, etc." Badrich, NameBase, seems to buy the conspiracy, calling Acid Dreams "a compulsively-readable history of LSD culture" that "details how the CIA, apparently by accident, promoted LSD from a chem-lab curiosity to an American folkway."

2. Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD -- the CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. New York: Grove/Weidenfeld, 1992.

Surveillant 3.2/3 identifies this as a "reprint of the 1985 edition with a new introduction ... and an afterword.... Many reviewers have referred to this as one of the best books to-date on CIA drug experimentation and analysis of its impact on American culture and the Agency's decision to use it."


Lee, Ronald D., and Paul M. Schwartz. "Beyond the 'War' on Terrorism: Towards the New Intelligence Network." Michigan Law Review 103, no. 6 (May 2005): 1446-1482.


Lee, Sabine. "The Spy That Never Was." Intelligence and National Security 17, no. 4 (Winter 2002): 77-99.

"Though it will not be possible to prove that the late Rudolf Peierls and his wife were not involved in espionage for the Soviet Union so long as the relevant Soviet files remain closed to research, the evidence which is accessible to date leaves little doubt about the couple's allegiances" to Britain and the West.


Lee, Wen Ho, with Helen Zia. My Country Versus Me: The First-Hand Account by the Los Alamos Scientist Who Was Falsely Accused of Being a Spy. New York: Hyperion, 2001.

Marston, Baltimore Sun, 19 Jan. 2002, calls Lee's book a "lively account," and notes that "Lee describes himself as a patriotic American scientist, who enjoyed the gentle pursuits of gardening, fishing and cooking, and devoted his life to helping the U.S. improve defense capabilities." Bamford, Washington Post, 20 Jan. 2002, finds this a "very personal book on the affair." He notes that "Lee claims that he downloaded ... [onto an unclassified system complex computerized codes, some of which were classified,] to use as back-up in case of serious computer problems."

To Panofsky, American Scientist, Jul.-Aug. 2002, Lee provides "self-serving explanations of his conduct," and "strives greatly (but with only limited success) to justify his mishandling of classified information.... His account emphasizes the anti-Chinese racial bias of many of the government investigators." In the end, this book "does not convey a good understanding of all the circumstances but is interesting nonetheless for its illumination of Lee's personality and character."


Lee, William Thomas.

1. The Estimation of Soviet Defense Expenditures for 1955-1975: An Unconventional Approach. New York: Praeger, 1977.

DIA critic of CIA estimates, who argues that the Soviet defense budget and the defense share of GNP were larger than figures claimed by CIA.

2. Understanding the Soviet Military Threat. New York: National Strategy Information Center, 1977.

Compare to Lee, The Estimation of Soviet Defense Expenditures..., above.

3. CIA Estimates of Soviet Military Expenditures: Errors and Waste. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1995.

The author continues the argument advanced in his Estimation of Soviet Defense Expenditures for 1955-1975 (above).


Lee, William T. "What Intelligence Edge?" Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 1-7 Aug. 1994, 29.

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