Lang - Lanz


Langan, John, S.J. "Moral Damage and the Justification of Intelligence Collection from Human Sources." Studies in Intelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 1981): 57-64.


Langbart, David A.

1. "Five Months in Petrograd 1918: Robert W. Imbrie and the US Search for Information in Russia." Studies in Intelligence 52, no. 1 (Mar. 2008) (Web Supplement). Available at:

The author provides an overview of Vice Consul Imbrie's stint in Petrograd, and includes two documents written by Imbrie after his return to Washington. These materials offer a good look at U.S. efforts to gather information on the threatening German forces and to keep up with events in Revolutionary Russia and their impact on World War I. The story also makes plain the ad hoc nature of U.S. intelligence collection at the time.

2. "'Spare No Expense': The Department of State and the Search for Information About Bolshevik Russia, November 1917-September 1918." Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 2 (Apr. 1989): 316-334.

Langbart describes the use of the Diplomatic and Consular services in "the first major effort of the United States government to learn about and gather information from inside Bolshevik Russia.... [T]he effort grew to include unconventional methods involving temporary officials and offices scattered throughout Russia."


Langelaan, George. Knights of the Floating Silk. London: Hutchinson, 1959. The Masks of War: From Dunkirk to D-Day -- The Masquerades of a British Intelligence Agent. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1959.

Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report. New York: Basic Books, 1972.

Walter Langer, brother of William Langer, was an OSS psychologist.


Langer, William L. In and Out of the Ivory Tower: The Autobiography of William L. Langer. New York: Neale Watson Academic Publications, 1978.

Langer headed OSS Research and Analysis Branch from 1942 through the war. He later set up what became the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research. In 1950, he returned from Harvard on a leave of absence to establish the structure for production of National Intelligence Estimates. O'Toole, Encyclopedia, p. 271.


Langhorne, Richard, ed. Diplomacy and Intelligence During the Second World War: Essays in Honor of F.H. Hinsley. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985. 2003. [pb]

Stern, FA (Winter 1985-1986), calls this "[a] collection of scholarly essays worthy of its recipient.... New interpretations and often new sources on such critical topics as Churchill's determination to carry on the war in May-June 1940, on Roosevelt's announcement of the policy of unconditional surrender, on the British and Tito. Some of these essays should open up new and useful controversies." Clark comment: The Table of Contents and Langhorne's introductory chapter are available at:


Langley, James Maydon. Fight Another Day. London: Collins, 1974.

Pforzheimer notes that Fight Another Day concerns the work of MI 9, Britain's escape-and-evasion organization, but finds that it "lacks sufficient detail for other than the casual reader." To Constantinides, this book is little more than a way station on the way to Foot and Langley's "more thorough" MI9. Langley headed a section of MI 9, but actually worked for MI 6 for most of the war.


Langman, Larry, and David Ebner. Encyclopedia of American Spy Films. New York: Garland, 1991.

Booth, I&NS 7.3, gives this effort good marks. He finds the descriptions of the films "judgmental without being prejudicial" and the topical entries "balanced and informative." This is "a valuable and useful addition to the standard works in the field."


Langton, James. "CIA Fights to Hide Its Invisible Ink." Telegraph (London), 11 Apr. 1999. []

"CIA lawyers say that classified First World War documents must not be made public because its spies still use the ink to send secret messages.... The formula is the oldest classified document still banned from public viewing at the National Archives." The judge who heard the freedom of information request in a Washington court in March "agreed, ordering the six files relating to the invisible ink kept secret until 2020."

[CIA/90s/99/Gen; CIA/C&C/Tradecraft]

Lanir, Zvi, and Daniel Kahneman. "Speaking to Policymakers: An Experiment in Decision Analysis in Israel in 1975." Studies in Intelligence 50, no. 4 (2006): 11-19.

The authors revisit a study done for Israeli Foreign Minister Yigael Alon in 1975.

[Israel/Overviews; Analysis/Gen]

Lankford, Nelson D.

1. The Last American Aristocrat: The Biography of David K.E. Bruce, 1898-1977. New York: Little, Brown, 1996.

Clark comment: David Bruce joined Donovan's Coordinator of Information (COI) in 1941 and served in it and its successor, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), until late 1945. As head of OSS activities in the European Theater of Operations, he participated in the Allied deception plans that cloaked the invasion of Normandy and organized and directed the Sussex and Jedburgh teams that parachuted into occupied Europe. His postwar career took him to ambassadorships in Germany, Britain, the Vietnam peace talks, China, and NATO -- all in all, a life of public service with few equals.

Thomas, WPNWE, 19-25 Aug. 1996, calls this biography "readable," and notes the author's respect for his subject and sensitivity "to the tragedies that darkened his life." The author covers Bruce's years in the OSS, and recounts later dealings with U.S. intelligence while at the State Department and as an ambassador.

2. ed. OSS Against the Reich: The World War II Diaries of Colonel David K.E. Bruce. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1991.

Surveillant 1.5 comments that "Lankford obtained the diaries of Bruce and worked with his wife to present a well-rounded portrait of Bruce's OSS activities as London Branch Chief."

On the other hand, MacPherson, I&NS 7.3, finds the picture presented less than well-rounded, arguing instead that there is "very little here for the student of OSS." He finds the diaries little more than "a name-dropping travel and epicurean guide to various wartime theatres.... There are no entries whatsoever concerning the critical pre-OVERLORD developments in OSS/London."


Lannan, Tim [MAJ/Canada] "Interagency Coordination Within the National Security Community: Improving the Response to Terrorism." Canadian Military Journal 5, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 49-56.

"Although interagency coordination is indeed required throughout the entire federal government infrastructure, this article will focus on the departments and agencies directly involved in combating terrorism and thus have an immediate need to coordinate their activities."


Lanning, Hugh, and Richard Norton-Taylor. A Conflict of Loyalties. Cheltenham, UK: New Clarion Press, 1991.

Lanning, Michael Lee [LTCOL (Ret.)]. Senseless Secrets: The Failures of U.S. Military Intelligence from George Washington to the Present. Emeryville, CA: Carroll & Graf, 1995. New York: Birch Lane Press, 1996.

Chambers sees this a "bilious, inaccurate and sloppy critique of US intelligence. I think it's the worst thing I've read since Rusbridger's Intelligence Game." According to Surveillant 4.4/5, Lanning "calls for a reevaluation, reorganization and revitalization of the military intelligence community, including a major re-org of the military services."


Lansdale, Edward Geary. In the Midst of Wars: An American's Mission to Southeast Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. [Reprint] New York: Fordham University Press, 1991.

According to Surveillant 2.1, Lansdale "recounts his missions with CIA in the Philippines and, later, in Vietnam during the 1950s and 1960s." For biographies of Lansdale, see Currey, Edward Lansdale (1988); and Nashel, Edward Lansdale's Cold War (2005).

[CA/Asia/Philippines; CIA/50s/Gen, 60s/Gen, & Memoirs; Vietnam/Gen]

Lansdale, Edward Geary. "Vietnam: Do We Understand Revolution." Foreign Affairs 43, no. 1 (1964): 75-86.


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