Rita T. Kronenbitter

Although some secondary sources are used, Kronenbitter's articles are based largely on the files in the Zagranichnaya Okhrana (The Okhrana Abroad) collection at the Hoover Institution, Stanford, California. The collection consists "principally of the complete archives of the Okhrana station in Paris." Kronenbitter, Studies 9.2 (Spring 1965): 25/fn. 1. 

Kronenbitter, Rita T. "The Illustrious Career of Arkadiy Harting." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 1 (Winter 1967): 71-86.

To Russian revolutionaries,"the life of Abraham Hackelman, as he was originally named, was one of endless and utmost infamy. He was a traitor to his ethnic group, an informer, spy, provocateur, impostor, and the most ruthless bloodhound of the Tsarist regime." His "true identity was exposed in 1909 at the height of his career as Arkadiy Harting," chief of Paris Okhrana. His exposure came from Vladimir Burtzev, who was building a counterintelligence bureau for the revolutionaries.


Kronenbitter, Rita T. "Leon Trotsky, Dupe of the NKVD." Studies in Intelligence 16, no. 1 (Special Edition 1972): 15-61.

"For operations abroad Stalin's services resorted at first to the use of penetration and provocation agents, spotters or fingermen, then to mobile teams for abductions and assassinations." Trotsky's "gullibility in dealing with people around him and the failure of the Fourth International to act by setting up some office to counter hostile espionage stand out as an enigma in [his] life and work."


Kronenbitter, Rita T. "Okhrana Agent Dolin." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 2 (Spring 1966): 57-72.

The author delves into Dolin's work for the Okhana against the Jewish Bund and the Anarcho-Communists, beginning in 1900. He worked first inside Russia and, then, in Geneva, Paris, and London. When World War I erupted, Dolin became a double agent against the Germans, supposedly carrying out acts of sabotage in Russia. He disappeared in Russia in early 1917.


Kronenbitter, Rita T.

1. "The Okhrana's Female Agents: Part I: Russian Women." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 2 (Spring 1965): 25-41.

"The Okhrana depended heavily on female agents, particularly in foreign operations.... The best of the female operatives ... [had] their paramount motivation in patriotism and devotion to the anti-revolutionary cause.... Women could be the most valuable of agents, engaged in extremely dangerous or sensitive operations, but they never held positions entailing any kind of supervisory function."

2. "The Okhrana's Female Agents: Part II: Indigenous Recruits." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 3 (Summer 1965): 59-78.

The author extends her story to the Okhrana's non-Russian female agents.

[Russia/Historical/Gen; Women/Misc/Women]

Kronenbitter, Rita T.

1. "Paris Okhrana 1885-1905." Studies in Intelligence 10, no. 3 (Summer 1966): 55-66.

Both inside Russia and abroad, the Okhrana was "surprisingly small." The primary task of the Paris center was "collecting intelligence on revolutionary movements." Okhrana headquarters and branches elsewhere also sent penetration agents abroad "with instructions to report directly home. The practice led to much confusion."

2. "Paris Okhrana: Final Phase." Studies in Intelligence 12, no. 3 {Summer 1968): 65-78.

The last chief of the Okhrana abroad, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Krassilnikov, took over in Paris in November 1909. He was "strong on systematic organization of the service..., capable of giving good guidance for operations but always aloof from any direct participation in them." The service was terminated in March 1917.


Kronenbitter, Rita T. "The Sherlock Holmes of the Revolution." Studies in Intelligence 11, no. 4 (Fall 1967): 83-100.

Vladimir Burtzev, journalist and propagandist, became the revolutionaries' chief counterintelligence operative in Paris. Among his many exposures, Burtzev was instrumental in uncovering Evno Azev, a leader in the Social Revolutionaries, as an Okhrana penetration.


Return to Krj-Kun