Oleg A. Kalugin

Kalugin is a retired KGB major general and former chief of Directorate K (counterintelligence) of the KGB's First Chief Directorate. He publicly split with the KGB in the summer of 1990 and was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in September 1990.

Kalugin, Oleg. "Intelligence and Foreign Policy." International Affairs, Jun. 1989: 56-66.


[Kalugin, Oleg.] "Testimony on Mr. Edmond Pope's Case [to Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs, on 6 Dec. 2000]." http://www.cicentre.com.

"The arrest of American businessman Edmond Pope on charges of espionage exemplifies the current trends in Russian domestic and foreign policies: reanimation of the old Soviet traits and growing anti-Americanism.... Mr. Pope acted as a businessman, not as a spy. He met his counterparts openly, negotiated with them and made a deal. He may have been indiscreet or too eager to get results and was eventually trapped by the FSB, which, in my judgment based on my experience, passed through the unaware or most likely coerced and intimidated middle man, Professor Babkin, classified information prepared by the FSB."


Kalugin, Oleg A. "Window of Opportunity: Russia's Role in the Coalition against Terror." Harvard International Review 24, no. 3 (Fall 2002).

[Russia/00s/02; Terrorism/02/Gen]

Kalugin, Oleg, with Fen Montaigne. The First Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West - The Ultimate Memoirs of a Master Spy. New York: St. Martin's, 1994. Spymaster: My 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West. London: 1994. Rev. ed. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

In what had all the appearance of an effort to even old scores, a Moscow court on 26 June 2002 convicted Kalugin in absentia (he lives in Silver Spring, Maryland) of treason and sentenced him to 15 years in prison for publishing The First Directorate. The trial seemed to be a real rush job since Russia's new Criminal Procedure Code, which took effect on 1 July 2002, does not allow trials in absentia. Burt Herman, "Russian Court Convicts Former Spy, Now in Maryland, of Treason," Washington Post, 27 Jun. 2002, A32.

According to Valcourt, IJI&C 7.4, Kalugin "maintains that the KGB, divided and reorganized by President Boris Yeltsin, nevertheless remains unreformed." Although Kalugin "presumably knew" that Aldrich Ames furnished the information that "led to the arrest and execution of several KGB officers who had been spying for the United States," he inaccurately (purposely or "out of the loop"?) credits Edward Lee Howard with this information.

Surveillant 4.1 sees Kalugin giving "a detailed picture of the inner-workings of the Soviet intelligence service, [but only] up to a point.... Though Kalugin tells a good story, a few important questions remain." These include "how genuine was his falling out with the KGB leadership and how reliable is he and this account?" For Johnson, Foreign Policy, Winter 1996-1997, Kalugin "provides extensive insights into the KGB as an organization," but the espionage cases he discusses "are almost all in the public record." There are also inconsistencies that "raise doubts about Kalugin's candor."

For Halpern, Periscope, Feb. 1995, Kalugin's book is "informative, illuminating, and thoroughly enjoyable reading.... He describes the inner workings of the old KGB, both in the field and at home.... The reader should bear in mind that Kalugin is still a staunch Russian patriot, not a turn-coat in any way." Parkinson, I&NS 10.4, notes that although Kalugin says he was "involved directly in the John Walker" case, he "does not add any new revelations." Although this book covers a great deal of ground, "there is little depth.... More importantly, Kalugin does not adequately cite sources." The book's "main contribution is describing the slow, inexorable decline of the very system which the KGB was ... meant to sustain."

See also Joseph C. Goulden, "KGB Tricks on Record in Self-Serving Memoir," Washington Times, 26 Feb. 1995, B6.

Commenting on the 2009 revised edition, Peake, Studies 53.3 (Sep. 2009) and Intelligencer 17.2 (Fall 2009), notes that a new epilogue provides new details about Kalugin's personal life. Other changes "add details to cases he discussed in relatively vague terms in 1994.... Spymaster is the unique story of a former KGB officer who did not defect. It is a valuable Cold War memoir."

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